Family Salticidae

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1
Ant-like habitus (opisthosoma long, slender; petiolus clearly visible)

  2  

- Spider-like habitus

  4  

2
(1)
Body length > 5 mm

  3  

- Body length < 4 mm; prosoma flat, eye region not elevated

Synageles

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
3
(2)
Eye region elevated, distinctly stepped

Myrmarachne

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Koh unpubl.)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Eye region not elevated

Leptorchestes

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Habitus, lateral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
4
(1)
Small species; body length mostly < 3 mm (but compare Sitticus caricis); length of the eye region approx. 0.4 of the prosoma length; prosoma low, prosoma height at the posterior median eyes approx. 0.45 – 0.6 of the prosoma length

  5  

- Medium-sized to very large species. Body length 4 – 11 mm

  8  

5
(4)
Dark coloured animals, shining metallic surface (males whole body, females only prosoma); male opisthosoma with scutum, female opisthosoma with a soft skin, dark grey; prosoma height approx. 0.45 of its length

Chalcoscirtus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Body surface not shining metallic; male opisthosoma without scutum

  6  

6
(5)
Pattern of opisthosoma reticulate, dark lines on bright ground, connected to a median angular pattern; eye region > 0.5 of the prosoma length; prosoma height approx. 0.45 of the prosoma length; embolus not spirally rolled up, at its base often small thorns; epigyne with two pits, their margins strongly sclerotised

Neon

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Pattern of opisthosoma with dark angles on bright ground (partly with bright dots) or completely black; eye region > 0.45 of the prosoma length; prosoma height approx. 0.6 of the prosoma length; male pedipalp with a long, spirally rolled up embolus (sometimes hidden); epigyne with bright "windows"

  7  

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
7
(6)
Eye region brighter or whole prosoma brighter; pedipalpal tibia without apophysis; spermathecae round

Talavera

- Prosoma of the same colour; pedipalpal tibia with apophysis; spermathecae not round

Euophrys

speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
8
(4)
Prosoma as wide as long (in Ballus a bit longer than wide)

  9  

- Prosoma clearly longer than wide

  12  

9
(8)
Eye region about 0.5 of the prosoma length; posterior median eyes close to the prosomal margin

  10  

- Eye region < 0.5 of the prosoma length; posterior median eyes not close to the prosomal margin; preferably on spruce

  11  

10
(9)
Posterior part of the prosoma wider than anterior part; prosoma surface rough, shining metallic

Ballus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Posterior part of the prosoma narrower than anterior part; prosoma surface smooth, not shining metallic

Bianor

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
11
(9)
Opisthosoma pattern laterally with pairs of whitish spots on reddish or greenish ground

Dendryphantes

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Opisthosoma pattern laterally with pairs of dark spots on whitish ground; prosoma as fig.

Macaroeris

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Prosoma
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
12
(8)
Prosoma flat and long; leg I distinctly longer than legs II-IV (especially in males)

  13  

- Different

  15  

13
(12)
Stridulatory organ (a row of thorns on small elevations) below the lateral eyes (corresponding small thorns laterally on femur I); tibia I strongly enlarged, with long, thin sensory hairs

Pseudicius

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Different

  14  

14
(13)
Prosoma dark, without distinct bright longitudinal stripes; opisthosoma conspicuously long; male pedipalp always with a simple tibial apophysis; epigyne with small depressions in the posterior part; in wet areas, at borders of water or at the sea coast

Marpissa

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Dark prosoma with distinct bright longitudinal stripes (Phlegra festiva sometimes completely black), similar pattern also on the opisthosoma; male pedipalp always with a forked tibial apophysis; epigyne with very large grooves

Phlegra

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
15
(12)
Prosoma conspicuously elevated

  16  

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Different

  20  

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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
16
(15)
Prosoma ± triangular in lateral view; posterior median eyes on the highest elevation of the prosoma; tarsus I-II with conspicuous large scopulae; one cheliceral teeth, others reduced; on sandy soils

Yllenus

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Tarsus I
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Different

  17  

17
(16)
Prosoma ± round in lateral view; body densely covered with hairs; dark grey with irregular bright spots; male pedipalp with chisel-like, projecting tibial apophysis; epigyne round to trapezoid with 2 small grooves

Carrhotus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Different

  18  

18
(17)
Male prosoma mostly with white angular pattern in the eye region; opisthosoma grey-black with bright median line

Aelurillus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Different

  19  

19
(18)
Male prosoma black; opisthosoma red wit black median stripe; female opisthosoma black with 2 longitudinal white dots (or stripes)

Philaeus

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Opisthosoma
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Prosoma dorsally with dark orange pattern, lateral lower part orange with white hairs and black margin, upper part dark brown with orange scale hairs; opisthosoma dorsally with yellow-brown dots and angles

Neaetha

20
(15)
Opisthosoma unicoloured, sometimes with white pattern

  21  

- Opisthosoma with irregular dark lines or a mosaic of dark, brown or grey spots of different size, sometimes with white pattern

  23  

21
(20)
Opisthosoma uniformly black, shiny metallic, blue, violet or green; laterally sometimes small white dots in pairs; the anterior opisthosomal margin sometimes with a half-moon-like white line; legs often yellow

Heliophanus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Different

  22  

22
(21)
Opisthosoma dark, diagonal or transversal white stripes in pairs, sometimes reduced to dots, no median line

Salticus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Opisthosoma black with a distinct white median line, sometimes broken, sometimes 1-2 pairs of white lines on the anterior opisthosomal margin and laterally

Pellenes

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
23
(20)
Opisthosoma with dark, diagonal lines on nearly black ground, sometimes laterally with white stripes

Evarcha

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Opisthosoma with a mosaic-like arrangement of dark, brown, or grey spots of different size, medially mostly with one pair of bright dots or chevrons

  24  

24
(23)
Cheliceral teeth as fig.; tibia of the male pedipalp as long as the bulbus or longer; epigyne with 2 small depressions, their margins half-moon-like sclerotised; in greenhouses

Hasarius

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
Chelicerae, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
- Cheliceral teeth different; tibia of the male pedipalp not conspicuously long; epigyne different; pattern as fig.

Sitticus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
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Habitus
(Roberts 1995)
- Further genus

Saitis

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male Habitus
(Metzner 1999)
Further genera

1Afraflacilla
2Asianellus
3Attulus
4Chinattus
5Cyrba
6Habrocestum
7Heliophanillus
8Hyllus
9Icius
10Logunyllus
11Marusyllus
12Mendoza
13Menemerus
14Mogrus
15Okinawicius
16Pancorius
17Panysinus
18Phintella
19Plexippoides
20Plexippus
21Pseudeuophrys
22Rudakius
23Sandalodes
24Sibianor
25Sittipub
26Thyene