Family Theridiidae

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1

Tarsi of leg I swollen

Hadrotarsus

-

Tarsi all equal and not swollen

  2  

2
(1)

Anterior median eyes smaller than other eyes

  3  

-

Anterior median eyes larger, eyes in two rows, males without scutum

  4  

3
(2)

Anterior median eyes very small, the other eyes in two groups, male opisthosoma with scutum, body length  1.2 - 1.5 mm

Pholcomma

speciesimage
Eyes, frontal view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Habitus, lateral view
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Anterior median eyes smaller than the other eyes, eyes closely positioned together, semi-circular, opisthosoma without scutum, oval, but slightly longer than wide, males slim

Coscinida

4
(2)

Anterior and posterior lateral eyes separated from each other at least by one diameter

Latrodectus

-

Lateral eyes hardly separated from each other, nearly touching each other

  5  

5
(4)

Tarsi longer than metatarsi, small spiders, body length 1-2 mm

  6  

-

Tarsi shorter than metatarsi, body longer than 1.5 mm

  8  

6
(5)

Opisthosoma sclerotized, with humps

Phoroncidia

speciesimage
male Habitus, lateral view
(Vanuytven 1991)
speciesimage
female Habitus, lateral view
(Vanuytven 1991)
-

Opisthosoma not sclerotized, rounded

  7  

7
(6)

Male clypeus with conus-shaped projection, female unknown

Carniella

speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Thaler & Steinberger 1988)
-

Clypeus not modified

Theonoe

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Thaler & Steinberger 1988)
8
(5)

Male with conspicuous frontal protrusions, opisthosoma conus-like extended, southern Europe

  9  

-

Male without frontal protrusions, opisthosoma different

  11  

9
(8)

General colouration light brown, opisthosoma uniformely light brown, without mottling, extruded into a long protrusion

Rhomphaea

-

Opisthosoma not extruded into a long protrusion

  10  

10
(9)

General colouration dark brown, opisthosoma with bright white shining guanine dots

Argyrodes

-

General colouration uniformely light brown, opisthosoma truncated, ending up with several humps

Neospintharus

11
(8)

Opisthosoma in females wider than long, with lateral protrusions, shiny, black and yellow or uniformely black coloured (except Theridula aelleni)

Theridula

-

Different

  12  

12
(11)

Opisthosoma elongate, clearly longer than wide, triangular,  truncated, slim in males

Episinus

speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Opisthosoma spherical or of different shape

  13  

13
(12)

Prosoma elevated, chelicerae short, anterior median eyes mostly larger than posterior median eyes, female pedipalp with comb-like claw, females with four receptacula

  14  

speciesimage
female Tip of pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Prosoma, frontal view
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Miller 1967)
-

Prosoma comparably flat, chelicerae long,  anterior median eyes not larger than posterior median eyes, claw of female pedipalp not modified, females with two receptacula

  15  

14
(13)

Opisthosoma pointed, spinnerets visible in dorsal view, cheliceral claw long,  trichobothrium of metatarsus I at 0.8 - 0.9

Euryopis

speciesimage
female Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Chelicera
(Miller 1963)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Miller 1963)
-

Opisthosoma rounded, protruding over the spinnerets which therefore are not visible from dorsally,  , cheliceral claw mostly short, trichobothrium of metatarsus I at 0.3 - 0.5, only in  Dipoena braccata at 0.7 (trichobothrium difficult to detect)

 

incl. listed genera below

Dipoena

speciesimage
Chelicera
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
Habitus, lateral view
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Dipoenata

-

Lasaeola

-

Phycosoma

-

Yaginumena

15
(13)

Colulus clearly protruding or invaginated and replaced by 2 setae

  16  

speciesimage
Spinnerets, colulus
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
Spinnerets
(Roberts 1985a)
speciesimage
Spinnerets
(Roberts 1985a)
-

Colulus lacking

  22  

16
(15)

Colulus large and clearly visible, female chelicerae with 0 - 2 teeth at the posterior claw margin

  17  

-

Colulus invaginated, only detectable due to the 2 setae, female chelicerae with 4 teeth at the posterior claw margin

  21  

17
(16)

Prosoma rough

  18  

-

Prosoma smooth

  20  

18
(17)

Sternum comparably broad and posteriorly truncated, cymbium of the male pedipalpus with a prolateral projection, chelicerae in both sexes similar, body length 2 - 3 mm, colulus clearly visible, covered with 2 setae

Crustulina

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1994)
-

Sternum posteriorly pointed, cymbium not modified, male chelicerae often enlarged, body length of European species 3.5 - 13.0 mm, colulus large, with 6 - 8 setae

  19  

19
(18)

Striking body colouration, opisthosoma dark with yellow spots or markings,  femora of the males thickened and ventrally with thorns

Asagena

-

Body colouration different, femora of the males ventrally not with thorns

Steatoda

20
(17)

Sternum protruding between coxae IV, opisthosoma often with dorsal pattern (except E. thoracica), male chelicerae strongly enlarged,  with distinct teeth, female chelicerae with one tooth at the posterior claw margin, receptacula seminis regularly rounded

Enoplognatha

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Sternum
(Levy 1998b)
speciesimage
Chelicera
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Sternum not protruding between coxae IV, opisthosoma uncoloured grey to brown, chelicerae in both sexes similar, chelicerae with 2 teeth at the posterior claw margin, receptacula seminis posteriorly narrowed

Robertus

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
Sternum
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
Chelicera
(Wiehle 1937)
21
(16)

Male pedipalpus with conspicuous bristles, epigyne inconspicuous, without scapus, southern Europe

Kochiura

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
Spinnerets, colulus
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
-

Bristles of the male pedipalpus different, epigyne with scapus

Anelosimus

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
Spinnerets
(Locket et al. 1974)
22
(15)

Opisthosoma higher than long

  23  

-

Opisthosoma not higher than long

  27  

23
(22)

Opisthosoma with dorsal hump or conical

  24  

-

Opisthosoma without dorsal hump, rounded

  26  

24
(23)

Small, body length 1.2 - 1.6 mm, dark colouration, with irregular pattern of bright dots

Achaeridion

-

Larger, body length 1.7 - 4.1 mm

  25  

25
(24)

Bright body colouration, opisthosoma conically extended, with white or dark patterns of stripes or conspicuous spiny bristles

Chrysso

-

Body length 1.7 - 3.2 mm, body colouration bright or dark brown, opisthosoma with inconspicuous hump and with bright motting, introduced to Central Europe, only in greenhouses

Cryptachaea

26
(23)

Conductor exceeds cymbium clearly, epigynal depression large

Parasteatoda

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Habitus, lateral view
(Levy 1998b)
-

Conductor does not exceed cymbium, epigynal depression and entrance duct small, inconspicuous

Cryptachaea

27
(22)

Tibiae I-IV with 1/1/1/1 setae

  28  

-

Sequence of setae at tibiae I-IV different, mostly 2/2/1/2

  29  

28
(27)

Trichobothrium at metatarsus III present, position of trichobothrium at metatarsus I-II at 0.9 - 0.95, body colouration bright yellow with black mottling

Platnickina

-

Trichobothrium at metatarsus III lacking, body colouration mainly red to orange brown, opisthosoma with dorsally serrated folium pattern

Simitidion

29
(27)

Legs, prosoma and opisthosoma with long, protruding bristles, metatarsi  dorso-basally with a long bristle, at hind legs longer, male pedipalp large and very prominent, with strongly sclerotized embolus, southern Europe

Anatolidion

-

Bristles of legs and body inconspicuous, metatarsi dorso-basally without long bristle

  30  

30
(29)

Sternum posteriorly wide, coxae IV by this widely separated, tibiae I-IV with 2/1/1/1 setae, metatarsus III without trichobothrium, body length 1.2 - 2.0 mm, legs relatively short

  31  

-

Sternum posteriorly pointed, metatarsus III with trichobothrium, body length 2-4 mm, legs longer

  32  

31
(30)

General colouration bright yellow  to bright brown, sometimes mottled

Paidiscura

speciesimage
Sternum
(Wiehle 1937)
-

General colouration bright red brown, southern Europe

Ruborridion

32
(30)

Tibiae I-IV with 2/2/1/1 setae, body length 2.5 - 3.0 mm, general colouration yellow–reddish, opisthosoma dorsally with ample black area, male pedipalpus very voluminous

Sardinidion

-

Tibiae I-IV with 2/2/1/2 setae, body length 2-4 mm

  33  

33
(32)

Male chelicerae clearly elongated, tarsal claws smooth or with a few small denticles, egigyne as figure

Rugathodes

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Male chelicerae less elongated, tarsal claws with several large lateral teeth, epigyne different

  34  

34
(33)

Male opisthosoma constricted, anteriorly with a sclerotized ring , forming two lobes, each with setae, epigyne as figure, introduced to Europe, only in greenhouses

Coleosoma

speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Saaristo 1978)
speciesimage
Opisthosoma, lateral view
(Levi & Levi 1962)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Levi & Levi 1968)
-

Different

  1  

35
(1)

Ocular area of males slightly elevated when seen in a side view, with short hairs between median eyes, females with conspicuous protruding epigynal depression, northern Europe

Thymoites

-

Different

  36  

36
(35)

Male pedipalpal tibia with slim excrescence, male pedipalp with voluminous subtegulum, tegulum and numerous spermophor loops, cymbium apically with tubercular projection,  epigyne as figure, general colouration yellow, males with black spots

Heterotheridion

-

Different

  37  

37
(36)

Trichobothrium at metatarsi I-II at 0.6 - 0.7, body unicoloured reddish-brown, body length of males 3 - 4 mm, of females 4 - 6 mm; male pedipalp and epigyne as figure, introduced to Europe, only in greenhouses

Nesticodes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Chrysanthus 1963)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, with mating plug, ventral view
(Chrysanthus 1963)
-

Position of the trichobothrium at metatarsus I-II in the basal half

  38  

38
(37)

Phylloneta

speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Different

  39  

39
(38)

Male clypeus projecting, cheliceral apodemes do not reach anterior median eyes, integument shiny, sparsely  pilose, opisthosoma of some species with small dorsal hump, legs long, slender, male epigaster not projecting, femur of the male pedipalpus long (0.7 - 1.1 mm), cymbium large, overtopping the bulbus

Neottiura

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1999)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Knoflach 1999)
speciesimage
Prosoma, frontal view
(Knoflach 1999)
-

Male clypeus not projecting, cheliceral apodemes nearly reach anterior median eyes, integument faint, pilose, legs relatively short, male epigaster usually projecting, femur of the male pedipalpus short (0.3 - 0.6 mm), cymbium not modified, opisthosoma often with  undulated dorsal folium pattern

 

incl. genera listed below

Theridion

speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Knoflach 1998)
speciesimage
Prosoma, frontal view
(Knoflach 1998)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
-

Canalidion

-

Ohlertidion

This key is a kind contribution of Barbara Thaler-Knoflach.
Further genera

1Meotipa