Theridiidae: Enoplognatha

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1
Males

  2  

- Females

  13  

2
(1)
Chelicerae with a long tooth, at its base sometimes with denticles

  3  

- Chelicerae with more than one tooth

  5  

3
(2)

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Embolus and conductor touching each other at base; median apophysis situated more proximally

Enoplognatha afrodite Hippa & Oksala, 1983

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Pesarini 2000)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
-

Embolus and conductor clearly separated at their base; median apophysis situated more basally

  4  

4
(3)

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Radix smaller than median apophysis (in ventral view); tip of conductor rectangularly bent; chelicerae in males with robust tooth

Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck, 1757)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Snazell 1983b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Snazell 1983b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
Ocular area and chelicerae
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
-

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Radix larger than median apophysis (in ventral view); conductor slightly spiral

Enoplognatha latimana Hippa & Oksala, 1982

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Snazell 1983b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Snazell 1983b)
5
(2)
Cheliceral teeth in frontal and posterior position

  6  

- Cheliceral teeth only in cheliceral furrow

  7  

6
(5)

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Median apophysis 3.5 times as long as wide; conductor distally with 2 rounded processes

Enoplognatha mordax (Thorell, 1875)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
-

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Median apophysis twice as long as wide; male chelicerae distally with 2 robust, bent teeth

Enoplognatha caricis (Fickert, 1876)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Kupryjanowicz 1997a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Yoshida 2001)
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Chelicerae, ventral view
(Kupryjanowicz 1997a)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Kupryjanowicz 1997a)
7
(5)
Opisthosoma dorsally uniformly dark or with whitish spots on dark background

  8  

- Opisthosoma dorsally with folium pattern

  9  

8
(7)

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Radix distinctly protruding; relatively short legs; male chelicerae and pedipalp as figs.

Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn, 1833)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
-

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Radix small, inconspicuous; longest teeth on male chelicerae and pedipalp as figs.

Enoplognatha testacea Simon, 1884

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
9
(7)
Secondary apophysis small; embolus long, bent, semicircular and longer

  10  

- Secondary apophysis large; embolus short, less than a semicircle

  11  

10
(9)

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Radix with robust basal tubercles; male chelicerae as fig.

Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
-

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Radix with small basal tubercles; conductor and male chelicerae as figs.

Enoplognatha oelandica (Thorell, 1875)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
11
(9)

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Radix with large basal tubercles; conductor with simple, short tip; longest tooth of male chelicerae as fig.

Enoplognatha mandibularis (Lucas, 1846)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Radix without basal tubercles

  12  

12
(11)

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Radix mesally with tooth; secondary apophysis distinctly elongated

Enoplognatha serratosignata (L. Koch, 1879)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
-

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Radix mesally without tooth; secondary apophysis less elongated

Enoplognatha gemina Bosmans & van Keer, 1999

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicerae, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
13
(1)
Pale in colour; opisthosoma mostly whitish; long legs, femur I more than 1.7 times prosoma length

  14  

- Colour different (grey, olive, brown, black); opisthosoma usually with folium, if whitish, then femur I less than 1.4 times prosoma length

  16  

14
(13)

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Epigyne with narrow median septum

Enoplognatha afrodite Hippa & Oksala, 1983

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, posteroventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Hippa & Oksala 1983)
- Different

  15  

15
(14)

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Epigynal groove approx. as long as wide; epigyne with laterally strongly sclerotised posterior margin; vulva as fig.

Enoplognatha latimana Hippa & Oksala, 1982

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Snazell 1983b)
-

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Epigynal groove longish; epigyne without particular sclerotisations on posterior margin

Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck, 1757)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Snazell 1983b)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
16
(13)
Epigyne with arcuate chitinous structures

  17  

- Different

  18  

17
(16)

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Opisthosoma ventrally with white spots; epigynal groove very wide, backwardly bent laterally; vulva as fig.

Enoplognatha caricis (Fickert, 1876)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Yoshida 2001)
-

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Opisthosoma ventrally with dark longitudinal stripe; epigyne distinctly wider than long, posterior margin with forward-directed process; vulva as fig.

Enoplognatha mordax (Thorell, 1875)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
18
(16)
Opisthosoma without folium pattern

  19  

- opisthosoma with folium pattern

  20  

19
(18)

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Epigyne with small, round central depression; vulva as fig.; prosoma and legs light brown; opisthosoma grey-brown with 3 pairs of white irregular spots, laterally a bright stripe, sometimes broken into spots

Enoplognatha testacea Simon, 1884

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dresco 1962)
-

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Different; epigyne and vulva as figs.; relatively short legs; colouration mostly dark brown; opisthosoma dorsally sometimes with several white spots

Enoplognatha thoracica (Hahn, 1833)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
20
(18)
Epigyne with distinct, mostly oval groove

  21  

- Epigyne with dark, strongly sclerotised depression, with indistinct margins

  22  

21
(20)

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Posterior margin of epigynal groove strongly sclerotised, 3-4 times as wide as diameter of epigynal groove

Enoplognatha diversa (Blackwall, 1859)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
-

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Sclerotised posterior margin of epigynal groove 1-2 times as wide as diameter of epigynal groove

Enoplognatha oelandica (Thorell, 1875)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
22
(20)

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Posterior epigynal margin not sclerotised, paler than the sclerotised depression; epigynal groove ± as wide as long

Enoplognatha mandibularis (Lucas, 1846)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

  23  

23
(22)

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Posterior epigynal margin elevated; prosoma light brown, margin and radial stripes darker; sternum black-brown; legs light brown, sometimes with dark rings; opisthosoma blackish, ventrally unicoloured, dorsally with large grey-yellow folium which has large black spots laterally and in heart region

Enoplognatha serratosignata (L. Koch, 1879)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Holm 1973)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Holm 1973)
speciesimage
female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Holm 1973)
-

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Posterior epigynal margin flat; prosoma brown, narrowly margined with black; sternum dark brown; legs brown, annulated; opisthosoma dorsally brown, with distinct folium, anteriorly with whitish spot, ventrally grey-brown, spotted with white

Enoplognatha gemina Bosmans & van Keer, 1999

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
Further taxa

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1. Enoplognatha almeriensis Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 2008)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 2008)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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2. Enoplognatha bryjai Řezáč, 2016

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
male Chelicera, ventral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Řezáč et al. 2016)

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3. Enoplognatha franzi Wunderlich, 1995

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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4. Enoplognatha giladensis (Levy & Amitai, 1982)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Huseynov & Marusik 2008)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Huseynov & Marusik 2008)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Huseynov & Marusik 2008)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Huseynov & Marusik 2008)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Huseynov & Marusik 2008)
speciesimage
female Chelicera, posterior view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
Spinnerets, colulus
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)

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5. Enoplognatha macrochelis Levy & Amitai, 1981

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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6. Enoplognatha mariae Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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7. Enoplognatha mediterranea Levy & Amitai, 1981

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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8. Enoplognatha monstrabilis Marusik & Logunov, 2002

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, dorsal view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, frontal view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Chelicera, lateral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Leg I, prolateral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
male Metatarsus I
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Marusik & Logunov 2002)

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9. Enoplognatha nigromarginata (Lucas, 1846)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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10. Enoplognatha parathoracica Levy & Amitai, 1981

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, mesal view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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11. Enoplognatha penelope Hippa & Oksala, 1982

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1982)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1982)
speciesimage
male Palpal tibia, dorsal view
(Hippa & Oksala 1982)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Hippa & Oksala 1982)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Hippa & Oksala 1982)

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12. Enoplognatha quadripunctata Simon, 1884

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, mesal view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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13. Enoplognatha sattleri Bösenberg, 1895

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)

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14. Enoplognatha verae Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Bosmans & Van Keer 1999)