Phrurolithidae: Phrurolithus

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1
Males

  2  

- Females

  6  

2
(1)
Tibial apophysis broad, only tapering at tip

  3  

- Tibial apophysis narrow, uniformly tapering

  4  

3
(2)

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2 distal bulbal apophyses overtopping embolus; tip of tibial apophysis symmetric

Phrurolithus pullatus Kulczyński, 1897

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1971)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1967)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Sterghiu 1985)
-

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Only one distal bulbal apophysis overtopping embolus; tip of tibial apophysis asymmetric

Phrurolithus festivus (C. L. Koch, 1835)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Sterghiu 1985)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1967)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis, ventral view
(Job 1968)
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male Tibial apophysis, ventral view
(Job 1968)
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male Tibial apophysis, lateral view
(Job 1968)
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male Tibial apophysis, lateral view
(Job 1968)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Sterghiu 1985)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Sterghiu 1985)
4
(2)

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Distal bulbal apophysis broad and roundish; tibial apophysis with somewhat stepped tip

Phrurolithus szilyi Herman, 1879

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1971)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1967)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Sterghiu 1985)
- Different

  5  

5
(4)

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Distal bulbal apophysis tapering into a tip, bent; tibial apophysis strongly bent

Phrurolithus minimus C. L. Koch, 1839

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1971)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1967)
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male Pedipalp
(Sterghiu 1985)
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male Pedipalp
(Tullgren 1946)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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Habitus
(Sterghiu 1985)
-

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Tibial apophysis less strongly bent, stepped tip long

Phrurolithus nigrinus (Simon, 1878)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Hänggi 1993)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Hänggi 1993)
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male Pedipalp
(Sterghiu 1985)
6
(1)
Epigyne with paired copulatory openings

  7  

- Different

  8  

7
(6)

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Copulatory openings situated medially

Phrurolithus minimus C. L. Koch, 1839

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1971)
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female Epigyne
(Simon 1932)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Job 1968)
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Habitus
(Sterghiu 1985)
-

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Copulatory openings situated laterally

Phrurolithus pullatus Kulczyński, 1897

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1971)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Sterghiu 1985)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1967)
8
(6)

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Epigyne with one deep median opening

Phrurolithus festivus (C. L. Koch, 1835)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1971)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Sterghiu 1985)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Tullgren 1946)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Wiehle 1967)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Sterghiu 1985)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Sterghiu 1985)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Braendegaard 1966)
-

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Epigyne with one large median groove, indented at anterior margin

Phrurolithus szilyi Herman, 1879

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Sterghiu 1985)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1967)
-

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Similar; vulva as fig.

Phrurolithus nigrinus (Simon, 1878)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Simon 1932)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Hänggi 1993)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Hänggi 1993)
Further taxa

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1. Phrurolithus corsicus (Simon, 1878)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Simon 1932)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Pantini et al. 2013)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pantini et al. 2013)
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female Epigyne
(Simon 1932)

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2. Phrurolithus florentinus Caporiacco, 1923

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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Caporiacco 1923)

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3. Phrurolithus thracia Komnenov & Chatzaki, 2016

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Komnenov et al. 2016)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Komnenov et al. 2016)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Komnenov et al. 2016)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Komnenov et al. 2016)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Komnenov et al. 2016)
4. Phrurolithus pygmaeus Thorell, 1875 world