Linyphiidae: Porrhomma

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1
Femur dorsally without spines

  2  

- Femur I-II dorsally with one spine at least

  3  

2
(1)

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Male pedipalp as fig., upper apophysis beak-shaped; vulva with long entrance ducts; receptaculum seminis situated laterally

Porrhomma oblitum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
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male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Male pedipalp: upper apophysis dorsally concave, quickly tapering; vulva with shorter entrance ducts; receptaculum seminis situated medially

Porrhomma montanum Jackson, 1913

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1956)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
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male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1956)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
3
(1)

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Metatarsus I-IV with dorsal spine; male pedipalp and epigyne as fig.

Porrhomma errans (Blackwall, 1841)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
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male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Legs I-IV
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Metatarsus without dorsal spine

  4  

4
(3)
Males

  5  

- Females

  13  

5
(4)
Embolus slender, finger- to sickle-shaped

  9  

speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Embolus claw-shaped; velum stepped

  6  

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
6
(5)

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Upper apophysis short, weakly sclerotised

Porrhomma egeria Simon, 1884

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1956)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
- Upper apophysis beak-shaped

  7  

7
(6)

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Upper apophysis dorsally concave, upwardly bent

Porrhomma campbelli F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Different

  8  

8
(7)

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Opisthosoma blackish; embolic division of pedipalp and eyes as fig.; prosoma width 0.6-0.72 mm

Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Embolic division
(Hippa et al. 1984)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
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Opisthosoma pale; embolic division of male pedipalp as fig.; prosoma width 0.75-0.95 mm

Porrhomma microps (Roewer, 1931)

female

speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
9
(5)

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Embolus ± straight

Porrhomma pallidum Jackson, 1913

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Hippa et al. 1984)
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male Embolic division
(Hippa et al. 1984)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Embolus sickle-shaped

  10  

10
(9)
Eyes strongly reduced; trichobothria metatarsus I: 0.5-0.7; femur I 1.1-1.3 x prosoma length

  12  

- Eyes normal; trichobothria metatarsus I: < 0.5; femur I < prosoma length

  11  

11
(10)

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Three very similar species: prosoma width 0.64-0.7 mm; femur I 0.75 mm; embolic division of pedipalp as fig.; cymbium length 0.28-0.31 mm

Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1956)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
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Prosoma width 0.79-0.92 mm; femur I 0.99-1.07 mm; embolic division and embolus as fig.; cymbium length 0.37-0.39 mm

Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Roberts 1987)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
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male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
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Prosoma width 0.8 mm; femur I 0.95 mm

Porrhomma microcavense Wunderlich, 1990

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wunderlich 1990)
12
(10)

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Embolic division of pedipalp as fig; eyes reduced

Porrhomma myops Simon, 1884

female

speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Embolic division as fig; eyes reduced

Porrhomma rosenhaueri (L. Koch, 1872)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Tip of pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Kratochvíl 1934)
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male Embolic division
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
13
(4)
Entrance ducts short; receptaculum seminis near median line

  14  

- Entrance ducts longer; receptaculum seminis situated laterally

  16  

14
(13)

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Finger-shaped receptaculum seminis directed inwards; eyes normal to reduced

Porrhomma campbelli F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1894

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Heimer 1978)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Finger-shaped receptaculum seminis directed outwards

  15  

15
(14)

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Prosoma width 0.6-0.7 mm; distance posterior median eyes to posterior lateral eyes 1.5-2.0 diameter; eyes normal; epigyne as fig.

Porrhomma pallidum Jackson, 1913

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Hippa et al. 1984)
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female Epigyne
(Hippa et al. 1984)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Hippa et al. 1984)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Hippa et al. 1984)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1956)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Prosoma width 0.77-0.84 mm; distance posterior median eyes to posterior lateral eyes 2.4-5.4 diameter; eyes reduced; epigyne as fig.

Porrhomma egeria Simon, 1884

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Eyes, dorsal view
(Roberts 1987)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
16
(13)
Entrance ducts with large diameter; turn back part bullous

  17  

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Entrance ducts narrower

  18  

17
(16)

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Prosoma width 0.6-0.7 mm; eyes well developed; opisthosoma blackish; epigyne as fig.

Porrhomma microphthalmum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
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Prosoma width 0.75-0.95 mm; eyes small to reduced; opisthosoma pale; epigyne/vulva as fig.

Porrhomma microps (Roewer, 1931)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
speciesimage
Eyes, dorsal view
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
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Chelicerae, ventral view
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
18
(16)
Eyes strongly reduced; Trichobothria Metatarsus I 0.5-0.7; femur I > prosoma length

  21  

- Eyes normal; Trichobothria Metatarsus I < 0.5; femur I < prosoma length

  19  

19
(18)

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Prosoma width 0.62-0.68 mm; opisthosoma blackish; epigyne/vulva as fig.

Porrhomma pygmaeum (Blackwall, 1834)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Prosoma width 0.72 mm and wider; opisthosoma middle grey to light grey

  20  

20
(19)

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Prosoma width 0.76-0.87 mm; epigyne/vulva as fig.

Porrhomma convexum (Westring, 1851)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Brignoli 1975a)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
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Prosoma width 0.72 mm

Porrhomma microcavense Wunderlich, 1990

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wunderlich 1990)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 1990)
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Prosoma
(Wunderlich 1990)
21
(18)

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Entrance ducts ± angular; eyes reduced

Porrhomma myops Simon, 1884

male

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Entrance ducts ± rounded; eyes reduced

Porrhomma rosenhaueri (L. Koch, 1872)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Kratochvíl 1934)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1956)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Eyes, dorsal view
(Roberts 1987)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1956)
Further taxa

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1. Porrhomma cambridgei Merrett, 1994

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1894)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, dorsal view
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1894)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, frontal view
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1894)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Merrett 1994)
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female Epigyne
(Merrett 1994)
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female Epigyne
(Merrett 1994)
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female Vulva
(Merrett 1994)

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2. Porrhomma omissum Miller, 1971

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
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Eyes, dorsal view
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)

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3. Porrhomma pallidum affinis Miller & Kratochvil, 1940

speciesimage
male Embolic division, retrolateral view
(Miller & Kratochvíl 1940)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Miller & Kratochvíl 1940)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Miller & Kratochvíl 1940)

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4. Porrhomma profundum Dahl, 1939

speciesimage
male Embolus
(Thaler 1983c)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Ruzicka 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)
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female Vulva
(Miller & Obrtel 1975)