Theridiidae: Robertus

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1
Males

  2  

- Females

  11  

2
(1)

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cp

Cymbium distally with 2 robust denticles

Robertus ungulatus Vogelsanger, 1944

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
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male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
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Prosoma, dorsal view
(Miller 1967)
- Cymbium without denticles

  3  

3
(2)

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Tibia of male pedipalp angled

Robertus lyrifer Holm, 1939

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Hauge 1969)
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male Pedipalp
(Holm 1945)
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male Pedipalp
(Agnarsson 1996)
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male Part of embolus
(Holm 1945)
- Different

  4  

4
(3)

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Male pedipalp massive, spheroidal, with characteristic apophyses; conductor as fig.

Robertus arundineti (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Weiss & Andriescu 1989)
- Male pedipalp different

  5  

5
(4)
Bulbus with large double-tipped apophysis

  6  

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
- Bulbus different

  8  

6
(5)

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Tips of bulbal apophysis ± equally large and parallel

Robertus lividus (Blackwall, 1836)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Embolus
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
- Different

  7  

7
(6)

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Tips of bulbal apophysis, conductor and embolus as fig.

Robertus truncorum (L. Koch, 1872)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Embolus
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
-

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Tips of bulbal apophysis, conductor and embolus as fig.; opisthosoma yellow-brownish, mostly lighter than in lividus

Robertus mediterraneus Eskov, 1987

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Eskov 1987a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Eskov 1987a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Embolus
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Knoflach 1992)
8
(5)
Bulbus laterally with large bipartite apophysis

  9  

- Different

  10  

9
(8)

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Bulbus laterally with apophysis; eyes relatively small

Robertus kuehnae Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut, 1993

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut 1993)
-

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Lateral bulbal apophysis as fig.

Robertus scoticus Jackson, 1914

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut 1993)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket et al. 1974)
speciesimage
male Cymbium, dorsal view
(Locket et al. 1974)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1967)
10
(8)

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Lateral bulbal apophysis narrow and pointed

Robertus neglectus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
-

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Lateral bulbal apophysis broad and with blunt ending

Robertus insignis O. P.-Cambridge, 1908

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
11
(1)

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Epigyne is a shallow, strongly sclerotised groove; entrance ducts very short

Robertus ungulatus Vogelsanger, 1944

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
Prosoma, dorsal view
(Miller 1967)
- Epigyne different

  12  

12
(11)

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Epigyne as fig.

Robertus lyrifer Holm, 1939

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Hauge 1969)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Agnarsson 1996)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Hauge 1969)
- Epigyne different

  13  

13
(12)

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Epigynal groove pointed anteriorly; epigastric furrow posteriorly bulged; entrance ducts long and convoluted

Robertus arundineti (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Weiss & Andriescu 1989)
- Epigyne different

  14  

14
(13)
Epigynal groove shallow, strongly sclerotised

  15  

- Epigyne different

  17  

15
(14)

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Epigynal groove ± square or round, a little anterior to epigastric furrow

Robertus truncorum (L. Koch, 1872)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
- Epigynal groove very large, reaching to epigastric furrow

  16  

16
(15)

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Epigyne and vulva as fig.

Robertus lividus (Blackwall, 1836)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1992)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
-

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Epigyne and vulva as fig.; opisthosoma yellow-brownish, mostly lighter than in lividus

Robertus mediterraneus Eskov, 1987

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Eskov 1987a)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Eskov 1987a)
17
(14)

world

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epigyne inconspicuous, on a bulge of epigastric furrow; entrance ducts approx. as long as diameter of receptacula seminis

Robertus kuehnae Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut, 1993

male

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut 1993)
- Epigyne different

  18  

18
(17)

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Epigynal groove small, directly at strongly sclerotised part of epigastric furrow; entrance ducts longer than diameter of receptacula seminis

Robertus scoticus Jackson, 1914

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Bauchhenss & Uhlenhaut 1993)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
- Epigyne different

  19  

19
(18)

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Epigynal groove partly covered by broad chitinous fold; vulva as fig.

Robertus neglectus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Miller 1967)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
-

world

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Epigyne as fig.

Robertus insignis O. P.-Cambridge, 1908

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Merrett & Snazell 1975)
Further taxa

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1. Robertus alpinus Dresco, 1959

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dresco 1959b)
speciesimage
female Eyes, frontal view
(Dresco 1959b)
speciesimage
female Chelicera, frontal view
(Dresco 1959b)

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2. Robertus cantabricus Fage, 1931

speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Fage 1931)

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3. Robertus cardesensis Dresco, 1959

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dresco 1959b)
speciesimage
female Eyes, frontal view
(Dresco 1959b)
speciesimage
female Chelicera, posterior view
(Dresco 1959b)

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4. Robertus frivaldszkyi (Chyzer, 1894)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 1976)

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5. Robertus golovatchi Eskov, 1987

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Eskov 1987a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Eskov 1987a)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Kovblyuk & Marusik 2012)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Kovblyuk & Marusik 2012)

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6. Robertus heydemanni Wiehle, 1965

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wiehle 1965a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Wiehle 1965a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 1973b)
speciesimage
male Conductor
(Weiss & Andriescu 1989)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Weiss & Andriescu 1989)

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7. Robertus mazaurici (Simon, 1901)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1976)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Dresco 1959b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach & Thaler 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1976)

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8. Robertus monticola Simon, 1914

speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dresco 1959b)