Salticidae: Sitticus

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1
Males

  2  

- Females

  14  

2
(1)
Bulbus round

  3  

- Bulbus oval or quadrangular

  9  

3
(2)
Tibial apophysis long, projecting, ± bent

  4  

- Tibial apophysis slender, triangular, pointed

  5  

4
(3)

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Tibial apophysis bent towards bulbus; embolus twisted around bulbus, its base covered; opisthosoma dorsally without white spots

Sitticus terebratus (Clerck, 1757)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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Tibial apophysis only slightly bent; embolus short and robust; opisthosoma dorsally with a pair of white spots

Sittipub pubescens (Fabricius, 1775)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
5
(3)

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Embolus at its base distinctly separated from bulbus

Sitticus zimmermanni (Simon, 1877)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Embolus at its base covered by a white membrane of bulbus

  6  

6
(5)

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cp

Sperm duct slightly S-like bent; tibial apophysis broad at its base; femora uniformly dark

Sitticus floricola (C. L. Koch, 1837)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Sperm duct strongly S-like bent; tibial apophysis longer and narrower; femora not uniformly dark

  7  

7
(6)

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Pedipalps without striking white hairs; pedipalp as fig.

Sitticus caricis (Westring, 1861)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Pedipalps with striking white hairs, mainly on femur and patella

  8  

8
(7)

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Prosoma with 3 distinct narrow longitudinal stripes consisting of white hairs; cymbium and bulbus comparatively large; basal half of femora bright; pedipalp as fig.

Sitticus rupicola (C. L. Koch, 1837)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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Prosoma with one bright median longitudinal stripe, the two lateral stripes less distinct, broadened above coxa III, from there often a vague transverse line running to median line; cymbium and bulbus comparatively small

Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
9
(2)

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Embolus broad, parallel to bulbal main axis, slightly bent distally

Sitticus dzieduszyckii (L. Koch, 1870)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Embolus narrow, diagonal to bulbal main axis

  10  

10
(9)

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Tibial apophysis broad, slantingly truncated distally, ending blunt

Sitticus saxicola (C. L. Koch, 1846)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Tibial apophysis ending in a pointed tip

  11  

11
(10)

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Tibial apophysis broadly triangular, straight

Sitticus distinguendus (Simon, 1868)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Tibial apophysis narrower and bent

  12  

12
(11)

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Tibial apophysis long, uniformly bent

Sitticus longipes (Canestrini, 1873)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Prószyński 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Prószyński 1991)
- Tibial apophysis shortly triangular, ± distinct tip

  13  

13
(12)

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Pedipalp dorsally unicoloured, with white bristles; pedipalp tibia moderately thickened; pedipalp as fig.

Sitticus saltator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1868)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Prószyński 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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Pedipalp dorsally with distinctly marked off colour pattern; pedipalp tibia strongly thickened; pedipalp as fig.

Sitticus penicillatus (Simon, 1875)

female

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Prószyński 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
14
(1)
Copulatory openings of epigyne not visible from the outside

  15  

- Epigyne with distinctly visible copulatory openings

  16  

15
(14)

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cp

Epigyne only consisting of a sclerotised depression with 2 dark spots; vulva simple

Sittipub pubescens (Fabricius, 1775)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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Epigyne is a complexly sclerotised plate; vulva complex, as fig.

Sitticus dzieduszyckii (L. Koch, 1870)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
16
(14)
Epigyne with distinctly developed groove, with covered copulatory openings at bottom

  17  

- Epigyne without distinct groove, copulatory openings distinct

  20  

17
(16)
Epigynal groove in anterior half of epigyne

  18  

- Epigynal groove in posterior half of epigyne

  24  

18
(17)

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Epigynal groove longer than wide

Sitticus saxicola (C. L. Koch, 1846)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Epigynal groove wider than long

  19  

19
(18)

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Epigynal groove with 2 openings, connected with posterior epigynal margin by narrow longitudinal depressions

Sitticus longipes (Canestrini, 1873)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Prószyński 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Breuss 2001)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Prószyński 1991)
-

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Epigynal groove slit-like

Sitticus terebratus (Clerck, 1757)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
20
(16)

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cp

Epigynal groove inversely V-like developed

Sitticus zimmermanni (Simon, 1877)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Epigynal groove roundish heart-shaped (for determination of the following 4 species a vulva preparation is needed)

  21  

21
(20)

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Entrance duct leading to anterior end of receptacula seminis, with single twist

Sitticus floricola (C. L. Koch, 1837)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Entrance duct leading to middle part of receptacula seminis

  22  

22
(21)

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Entrance duct with single twist

Sitticus caricis (Westring, 1861)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Thaler 1981c)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Entrance duct stronger convoluted

  23  

23
(22)

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Epigyne and vulva as fig.

Sitticus rupicola (C. L. Koch, 1837)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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cp

Epigyne and vulva as fig.

Sitticus inexpectus Logunov & Kronestedt, 1997

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Logunov & Kronestedt 1997)
24
(17)

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cp

Copulatory openings distinctly separated over 1/2 of epigyne length by narrow elevation

Sitticus penicillatus (Simon, 1875)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
- Different

  25  

25
(24)

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cp

Due to broad elevation in anterior epigynal part 2 small, anteriorly open grooves indicated

Sitticus saltator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1868)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
-

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Epigyne and vulva as fig.

Sitticus distinguendus (Simon, 1868)

male

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1972a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Szüts et al. 2003)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Szüts et al. 2003)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Zabka 1997)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Zabka 1997)
Further taxa

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1. Sitticus ammophilus (Thorell, 1875)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Prószyński 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Prószyński 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Prószyński 1987)
speciesimage
male Bulbus, ventral view
(Prószyński 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wesolowska 1996)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wesolowska 1996)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Prószyński 1987)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wesolowska 1996)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Prószyński 1987)

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2. Sitticus atricapillus (Simon, 1882)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2003)

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3. Sitticus avocator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1885)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov & Marusik 2000)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Logunov & Marusik 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Logunov & Marusik 2000)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov & Marusik 2000)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Logunov & Marusik 2000)

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4. Sitticus barsakelmes Logunov & Rakov, 1998

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Ponomarev 2008b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Ponomarev 2008b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Logunov & Rakov 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Ponomarev 2008b)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Logunov & Rakov 1998)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Ponomarev 2008b)

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cp

5. Sitticus damini (Chyzer, 1891)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Chyzer & Kulczyński 1897)

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6. Sitticus goricus Ovtsharenko, 1978

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Ovtsharenko 1978)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Ovtsharenko 1978)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Ovtsharenko 1978)

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7. Sitticus inopinabilis Logunov, 1992

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov 1992a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Logunov 1992a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Logunov 1998)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov 1998)

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8. Sitticus pulchellus Logunov, 1992

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov 1992a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Logunov 1992a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Logunov 1995a)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Logunov 1995a)

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cp

9. Sitticus ranieri (Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, dorsal view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Palpal tibia, dorsal view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Palpal tibia, retrolateral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
male Leg I
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Kronestedt & Logunov 2001)

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10. Sitticus rivalis Simon, 1937

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
male Habitus
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
female Vulva, ventral view
(Logunov 2004a)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Logunov 2004a)
11. Sitticus psammodes (Thorell, 1875) world