Theridiidae: Steatoda

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1
Opisthosoma dark brown to black, shiny with a pattern consisting of points or lines similar to fig., yellow or whitish, rarely lacking

  2  

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female Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Opisthosoma different, sometimes with a striking dorsal longitudinal stripe which can be broken into points, but never like fig. at #1

  4  

2
(1)

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Embolus very long; epigynal groove ± circular, its anterior margin with a backward-directed process; opisthosoma black, dorsally with white or yellow pattern as fig. (rarely lacking)

Asagena phalerata (Panzer, 1801)

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

  3  

3
(2)

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Pedipalp as fig.; accompanying process of embolus longish; epigyne with striking furrows

Asagena meridionalis (Kulczyński, 1894)

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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Epigyne
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1996a)
-

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Pedipalp as fig.; accompanying process of embolus blunt, inconspicuous; epigyne hardly furrowed

Asagena italica (Knoflach, 1996)

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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Epigyne
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1996a)
4
(1)
Embolus very short, not twisted; epigyne with robust chitinous bulges

  5  

- Embolus transverse to longitudinal axis of cymbium; epigyne is a large groove

  9  

5
(4)

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Conductor laterally with small tip; posterior epigynal margin with 2 forwardly directed bulges; opisthosoma light or darker brown with pattern as fig. (sometimes blurred)

Steatoda castanea (Clerck, 1757)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Conductor and epigyne different

  6  

6
(5)

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Conductor long and bent; pedipalp tibia longer than cymbium; epigynal groove small and rounded; opisthosoma dark brown to almost black, pattern yellowish (fig.), sometimes broken into single spots

Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer, 1802)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Yoshida 2001)
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female Epigyne
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Yoshida 2001)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Yoshida 2001)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

  7  

7
(6)

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Conductor hook-like bent distally; pedipalp tibia shorter than cymbium; epigynal groove large, anterior margin angular; opisthosoma almost black, with characteristic white, yellowish or reddish pattern (fig.) (rarely uniformly black)

Steatoda albomaculata (De Geer, 1778)

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Yoshida 2001)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Yoshida 2001)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1996a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Yoshida 2001)
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female Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Chelicerae, ventral view
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

  8  

8
(7)

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Pedipalp, epigyne and vulva as fig.

Steatoda paykulliana (Walckenaer, 1806)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Noflatscher 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Pesarini unpubl.)
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male Pedipalp
(Noflatscher 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Pesarini unpubl.)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1934)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Noflatscher 1991)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Noflatscher 1991)
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Pedipalp and epigyne as fig. opisthosoma dark with white pattern, ventrally dark with white median line and two indistinct lateral lines which merging anterior to spinnerets

Steatoda incomposita (Denis, 1957)

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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996b)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996b)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1996b)
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male Habitus, ventral view
(Knoflach 1996b)
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female Epigyne
(Knoflach 1996b)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1996b)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1996b)
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female Habitus
(Knoflach 1996b)
9
(4)

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Conductor very large; epigynal groove ± square; opisthosoma mostly reddish brown with yellowish pattern as fig. (sometimes black-brown with indicated light longitudinal stripe)

Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Chelicerae, ventral view
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Spinnerets
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

  10  

10
(9)

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Conductor small; epigynal groove with narrow septum; colouration very variable, whitish yellow to brown (then with pattern) to almost black with blurred pattern; legs always unicoloured

Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch, 1838)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Snazell & Jones 1993)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Yoshida 2001)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Yoshida 2001)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Yoshida 2001)
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Pedipalp as fig.; epigynal groove with broad septum; colouration very variable, prosoma dark red-brown with darker radial pattern; legs light yellow-brown, tibia distally darker; male opisthosoma with folium pattern, dark purple, beige and white, 4 larger reddish impressed dots; in females purple-brown with whitish stripe

Steatoda nobilis (Thorell, 1875)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Snazell & Jones 1993)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Snazell & Jones 1993)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Snazell & Jones 1993)
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female Epigyne
(Snazell & Jones 1993)
Further taxa

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1. Steatoda albomaculata infuscata (Schenkel, 1925)

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male Pedipalp
(Schenkel 1926)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Schenkel 1925)

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2. Steatoda dahli (Nosek, 1905)

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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy 1998c)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy 1998c)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy 1998c)
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male Chelicera
(Levy 1998c)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)

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3. Steatoda erigoniformis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Sternum
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Chelicera
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Epigyne
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Opisthosoma, lateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)

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4. Steatoda latifasciata (Simon, 1873)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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male Chelicera
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Epigyne
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Opisthosoma, lateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)

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5. Steatoda maura (Simon, 1909)

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
speciesimage
male Chelicera
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
speciesimage
male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Chelicera
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)
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female Opisthosoma, ventral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982b)

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6. Steatoda trianguloides Levy, 1991

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Lissner 2016c)
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male Pedipalp, mesal view
(Levy 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy 1991)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy 1991)