Theridiidae: Theridion

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1
Median longitudinal band on opisthosoma with large, uniform spikes, almost white, grey or red

  2  

- Median longitudinal band on opisthosoma different

  4  

2
(1)

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Median longitudinal band of opisthosoma almost white, with brown or black margin; male pedipalp with bipartite conductor; epigyne difficult to recognise

Simitidion simile (C. L. Koch, 1836)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Prosoma red with white margin

  3  

3
(2)

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Opisthosoma and male pedipalp as figs.; epigyne ± rectangular; prosoma yellowish with brown margin and median stripe; opisthosoma next to dorsal longitudinal band with fine white and brown points, ventrally spotted with white, with dark spot anterior to spinnerets

Theridion pictum (Walckenaer, 1802)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1998)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Pedipalp with conspicuous median apophysis and terminal hook on conductor; epigyne with very small central opening; prosoma light yellow with dark median stripe; opisthosoma with whitish pattern, margined with grey

Theridion hemerobium Simon, 1914

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male Pedipalp
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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male Pedipalp
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Epigyne
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Vulva
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
4
(1)
Opisthosoma on both sides of light median band with a row of large, rectangular, dark spots as fig.

  5  

- Opisthosoma dorsally different; spots irregularly arranged

  6  

5
(4)

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Conductor large, shovel-shaped; epigynal groove wider than long; prosoma reddish yellow with broad brown-black margin and median stripe; opisthosoma yellowish, dorsally with dark brown pattern consisting of spots

Phylloneta impressa (L. Koch, 1881)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Conductor short, distally truncated; epigynal groove approx. as long as wide

Phylloneta sisyphia (Clerck, 1757)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
6
(4)
Opisthosoma dorsally in anterior third with dark pattern, numerous light spots on dark background or completely white, never a continuous median band

  7  

- Opisthosoma dorsally with continuous light median band as fig.

  10  

7
(6)

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Dark spot on anterior third of opisthosoma longer than wide or opisthosoma completely white; male pedipalp with long, bent tibia; epigyne very small, black, bipartite

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Jäger et al. 2000)
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male Pedipalp
(Pesarini unpubl.)
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male Tip of embolus
(Jäger et al. 2000)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Pesarini unpubl.)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Jäger et al. 2000)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Dark spot in anterior third of opisthosoma wider than long or bipartite or with irregular pattern; male pedipalp and epigyne different

  8  

8
(7)

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Opisthosoma with irregular pattern consisting of light spots, posteriorly with tubercle, ventrally black with 3 white spots; male pedipalp, epigyne and vulva as figs.; prosoma brown, dark margined

Achaeridion conigerum (Simon, 1914)

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male Pedipalp
(Heimer 1980)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1993a)
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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1993a)
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male Pedipalp, expanded, ventral view
(Heimer 1980)
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male Habitus, lateral view
(Knoflach 1993a)
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female Epigyne
(Knoflach 1993a)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1993a)
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Habitus
(Heimer 1980)
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Habitus
(Knoflach 1993a)
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Habitus, lateral view
(Kupryjanowicz 1997a)
- Different

  9  

9
(8)

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Dark spot in anterior third large (sometimes extended over whole dorsal side) and with convex anterior margin; embolus very long, forming a large loop; epigynal groove longer than wide; prosoma yellow, head region and margin darkened

Sardinidion blackwalli (O. P.-Cambridge, 1871)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Dark spot in anterior third of opisthosoma often bipartite and with concave anterior margin; male pedipalp, epigyne and vulva as fig.; prosoma whitish yellow with fine black margin and broad, black median stripe; opisthosoma whitish yellow with fine grey or brown spots and variable pattern

Platnickina tincta (Walckenaer, 1802)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
10
(6)

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Light median band of opisthosoma widest in the middle, bordered by irregular black spots; male pedipalp, epigyne and vulva as fig.

Theridion familiare O. P.-Cambridge, 1871

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Hansen 1992)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Light median band of opisthosoma ± of the same width along its whole length with ± regularly bulged margin

  11  

11
(10)
Conductor as wide as long, distally simple; epigynal groove as wide as long, approx. circular

  12  

- Conductor distally with complex processes; epigyne different, not circular

  15  

12
(11)

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Bulbus with large, projecting, bipartite apophysis; epigynal groove posteriorly dark margined, anteriorly with small bulge; opisthosoma with light, laterally bulged median band, dark margined

Theridion varians Hahn, 1833

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1998)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Opisthosoma, lateral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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Prosoma, lateral view
(Knoflach 1998)
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Prosoma, frontal view
(Knoflach 1998)
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Prosoma, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1998)
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Sternum
(Knoflach 1998)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Jäger & Ono 2000)
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Habitus
(Jäger 1995a)
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Habitus
(Jäger 1995a)
- Bulbus and epigyne different

  13  

13
(12)

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Conductor narrow; epigynal groove shallow; copulatory opening distinctly visible; opisthosoma dorsally with longitudinal band as fig. (see also T. asopi)

Theridion betteni Wiehle, 1960

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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Vulva
(Thaler 1966)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Conductor broader; copulatory opening covered

  14  

14
(13)

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Conductor ± circular; epigynal groove posteriorly bulged; entrance ducts forming a double loop

Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket et al. 1974)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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male Embolus and conductor
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Epigyne
(Aakra 2000a)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Vulva
(Aakra 2000a)
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female Vulva
(Thaler 1966)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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Conductor laterally with small, projecting tip; epigynal groove not bulged posteriorly; entrance ducts in numerous narrow loops

Theridion mystaceum L. Koch, 1870

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket et al. 1974)
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male Embolus and conductor
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Epigyne
(Aakra 2000a)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Vulva
(Aakra 2000a)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
15
(11)

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Body length approx. 2 mm; conductor distally with 2 long tips; epigynal groove distinctly bulged anteriorly; entrance ducts long and complexly bent

Theridion boesenbergi Strand, 1904

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Thaler 1966)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
- Body length greater than or equal 2.5 mm; conductor and epigyne different

  16  

16
(15)

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Conductor with a single tip; epigynal groove concave posteriorly

Theridion pinastri L. Koch, 1872

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male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1998)
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male Pedipalp
(Aakra 2000a)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Tip of conductor bipartite; posterior margin of epigynal groove straight or slightly convex; entrance ducts with double loop

Theridion petraeum L. Koch, 1872

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1998)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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female Vulva
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
Further taxa

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1. Theridion adrianopoli Drensky, 1915

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male Pedipalp
(Brignoli 1984a)
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male Pedipalp
(Brignoli 1984a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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female Epigyne, lateral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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female Epigyne, aboral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Brignoli 1984a)
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female Vulva
(Deltshev 1992a)
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female Vulva
(Deltshev 1992a)
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female Vulva
(Deltshev 1992a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 1995n)

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2. Theridion asopi Vanuytven, 2014

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
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male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Vanuytven 2014)

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3. Theridion bosniense Wunderlich, 2011

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Embolus and conductor, prolateral-ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)

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4. Theridion carpathium Brignoli, 1984

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female Vulva, ventral view
(Brignoli 1984a)

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5. Theridion cinereum Thorell, 1875

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1998)
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male Pedipalp
(Thaler 1966)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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female Vulva
(Thaler 1966)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Brignoli 1984a)

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6. Theridion corcyraeum Brignoli, 1984

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female Vulva, ventral view
(Brignoli 1984a)

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7. Theridion furfuraceum Simon, 1914

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Lecigne unpubl.)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Lecigne unpubl.)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Lecigne unpubl.)

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8. Theridion genistae Simon, 1873

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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male Pedipalp
(Brignoli 1967c)
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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Epigyne
(Brignoli 1967c)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Vulva
(Brignoli 1967c)

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9. Theridion glaucinum Simon, 1881

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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)

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10. Theridion hannoniae Denis, 1945

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Thaler & Noflatscher 1990)
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male Pedipalp
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral-ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Epigyne
(Jäger & Ono 2000)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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female Epigyne
(Crespo et al. 2009b)
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female Vulva
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Vulva
(Bosmans et al. 1994)
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female Vulva
(Jäger & Ono 2000)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
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Habitus
(Jäger & Ono 2000)
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Habitus, lateral/ventral view
(Jäger & Ono 2000)

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11. Theridion harmsi Wunderlich, 2011

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Embolus and conductor, prolateral-ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Embolus, prolateral-ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 2011a)

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12. Theridion helena Wunderlich, 2011

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male Embolic tooth, ventro-prolateral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 2011a)

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13. Theridion innocuum Thorell, 1875

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne/vulva
(Azheganova 1968)

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14. Theridion italiense Wunderlich, 1995

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Wunderlich 1995n)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Duma 2009)
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male Median apophysis
(Duma 2009)
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male Chelicera, lateral view
(Duma 2009)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Duma 2009)
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female Vulva, ventral view
(Duma 2009)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Duma 2009)
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female Chelicerae, frontal view
(Duma 2009)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Duma 2009)

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15. Theridion lapidicola Kulczyński, 1887

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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kulczyński 1887)

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16. Theridion malagaense Wunderlich, 2011

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Embolus and conductor, prolateral-ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Cephalic area, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 2011a)
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male Femur I, ventral view
(Wunderlich 2011a)

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17. Theridion melanostictum O. P.-Cambridge, 1876

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Knoflach 1998)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Ono 2011)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Ono 2011)
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male Habitus, dorsal view
(Ono 2011)
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female Epigyne
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Ono 2011)
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female Epigyne, variation
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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female Vulva
(Knoflach 1998)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy & Amitai 1982a)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Ono 2011)

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18. Theridion nasutum Wunderlich, 1995

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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male Embolus and conductor
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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male Prosoma, lateral view
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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male Ocular area
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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female Epigyne
(Wunderlich 1995a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Wunderlich 1995a)

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19. Theridion negebense Levy & Amitai, 1982

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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levy 1998c)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levy 1998c)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Vulva, variation, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Vulva, variation, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levy 1998c)

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20. Theridion palmgreni Marusik & Cellarius, 1986

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male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Marusik & Tsellarius 1986)
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male Tip of pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Tsellarius 1986)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Blick et al. 2006)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Marusik & Tsellarius 1986)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Blick et al. 2006)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Marusik & Tsellarius 1986)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Blick et al. 2006)

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21. Theridion parvulum Blackwall, 1870

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male Eyes, frontal view
(Blackwall 1870a)
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male Habitus, dorsal view
(Blackwall 1870a)

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22. Theridion pinicola Simon, 1873

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)

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23. Theridion pyrenaeum Denis, 1945

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)

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24. Theridion semitinctum Simon, 1914

speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach et al. 2009)

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25. Theridion sibiricum Marusik, 1988

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Marusik 1988a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Marusik 1988a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik 1988a)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik 1988a)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Marusik 1988a)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Marusik 1988a)

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26. Theridion tenellum C. L. Koch, 1841

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female Habitus
(C. L. Koch 1841)

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27. Theridion tigrae Esyunin & Efimik, 1996

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Esyunin & Efimik 1996b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Esyunin & Efimik 1996b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Esyunin & Efimik 1996b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, variation, ventral view
(Esyunin & Efimik 1996b)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Esyunin & Efimik 1996b)

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28. Theridion uhligi Martin, 1974

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male Pedipalp
(Jocqué 1977)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Jocqué 1977)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, lateral view
(Jocqué 1977)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Jocqué 1977)
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Habitus
(Jocqué 1977)

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29. Theridion wiehlei Schenkel, 1938

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Denis 1944c)
speciesimage
male Median apophysis, prolateral view
(Denis 1944c)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Denis 1944c)
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female Epigyne
(Deltshev 1992a)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
30. Theridion albipes L. Koch, 1878 world
31. Theridion histrionicum Thorell, 1875 world
32. Theridion laevigatum Blackwall, 1870 world
33. Theridion prominens Blackwall, 1870 world
34. Theridion swarczewskii Wierzbicki, 1902 world
35. Theridion varians rusticum Simon, 1873 world