Araneidae: Araneus

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Body length of males: 4-5 mm, females: 5-6 mm; opisthosoma wider than long

  2  

- Body length mostly greater than 10 mm; opisthosoma longer than wide

  3  

2
(1)

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Opisthosoma approx. as long as wide, deep red-brown; sternum uniformly brown, darker than coxa; opisthosoma anteriorly with characteristic dark brown spots, posterior to them sometimes an indistinct folium; median apophysis of male pedipalp distally with 3 short equidistant tips; scapus of epigyne longish distally

Araneus sturmi (Hahn, 1831)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Weiss 1988)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Aakra unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Aakra unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Aakra unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Aakra 2000a)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Opisthosoma slightly wider than long, light brown; sternum as bright as coxa; colouration very variable, very similar to sturmi, but mostly brighter, the dark spots on anterior margin of opisthosoma and the folium almost always lacking; median apophysis of male pedipalp distally with 3 long tips, two of them closer together; scapus of epigyne very broad distally

Araneus triguttatus (Fabricius, 1775)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Median apophysis
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
3
(1)
Dorsal surface of opisthosoma anteriorly with well-defined tubercles

  4  

- Opisthosoma without tubercles, at most appearing angular anteriorly

  8  

4
(3)

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Body length of male 7.5 mm, female 8.5-9.0 mm; male pedipalp as fig.; epigyne with broad, strongly wrinkled scapus

Araneus nordmanni (Thorell, 1870)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Aakra unpubl.)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Habitus
(Aakra unpubl.)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1931)
- Body length greater or equal 10 mm

  5  

5
(4)
Sternum dark brown with yellow longitudinal spot

  6  

- Sternum yellowish without longitudinal spot

  7  

6
(5)

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Male tibia II with long and stout spines; distal spines on distinct tubercles; distal apophysis of male pedipalp wing-like broadened; median part of epigyne narrowly slit-like below scapus

Araneus circe (Audouin, 1826)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Embolic division
(Thaler 1991b)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Tibia II
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne, scapus lifted
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Tibia
(Loksa 1972)
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Male tibia II with short spines; distal spine not on tubercle; distal apophysis of male pedipalp pointed; median part of epigyne oval to egg-shaped beneath scapus

Araneus angulatus Clerck, 1757

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Bulbus
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Embolic division
(Thaler 1991b)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Tibia II
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne, scapus lifted
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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female Habitus
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Tibia
(Loksa 1972)
7
(5)

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Sternum yellowish brown with dark margin; body length of males 11 mm, females 15-23 mm; opisthosoma highly bulged, light brown, tubercles yellowish, dark brown patter as fig.; male pedipalp and epigyne as figs.

Araneus grossus (C. L. Koch, 1844)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Embolic division
(Thaler 1991b)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Tibia
(Loksa 1972)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Sternum uniformly red-brown; body length of males 11 mm, females 16 mm; opisthosoma grey-brown, anteriorly with yellowish white longitudinal stripe which continues as a row of dots posteriorly, near folium with dark transverse stripes; male pedipalp and epigyne as figs.

Araneus saevus (L. Koch, 1872)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Aakra unpubl.)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Aakra unpubl.)
8
(3)

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Largest width of opisthosoma in anterior third, appearing angular anteriorly, dorsally with cross-shaped, white pattern; male pedipalp and epigyne as figs.

Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757

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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Loksa 1969)
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female Epigyne
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Coxae I and II
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Azheganova 1968)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1931)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Largest width of opisthosoma approximately in the middle

  9  

9
(8)

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Opisthosoma bright orange with small white spots; male pedipalp and epigyne as figs.

Araneus alsine (Walckenaer, 1802)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
- Opisthosoma very variable in colour, dorsally in anterior half with 4 large white spots

  10  

10
(9)

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Median apophysis of male pedipalp bluntly rounded distally; scapus of epigyne parallel-sided; opisthosoma yellowish white to yellow to reddish brown with characteristic pattern (the opisthosoma is light yellow with fine black lines and a dark brown to black folium in the colour-type described as betulae)

Araneus marmoreus Clerck, 1757

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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Tibia II
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Coxae I and II
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Median apophysis of male pedipalp deeply forked distally; scapus of epigyne strongly broadened basally; base colour of opisthosoma varying from almost white via greenish yellow to luscious red-brown, but always with 4 large white spots

Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Tegular apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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male Palpal apophysis
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Habitus
(Loksa 1972)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
Further taxa

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1. Araneus corticaloides (Roewer, 1955)

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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Jäger unpubl.)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Jäger unpubl.)

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2. Araneus crispulus Tullgren, 1952

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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Tullgren 1952)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Tullgren 1952)

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3. Araneus ishisawai Kishida, 1920

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male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Tanikawa 2007)
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male Bulbus
(Oliger 1991)
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male Embolus with cap
(Tanikawa 2007)
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male Embolus
(Tanikawa 2007)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Tanikawa 2007)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Oliger 1991)
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female Epigyne, lateral view
(Oliger 1991)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Oliger 1991)

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4. Araneus pallasi (Thorell, 1875)

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male Pedipalp
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Song et al. 1999)

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5. Araneus pallidus (Olivier, 1789)

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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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male Pedipalp in detail, retrolateral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Grasshoff 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Simon 1929)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, antero-ventral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, antero-ventral view
(Morano unpubl.)
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female Epigyne, antero-ventral view
(Grasshoff 1968)
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female Vulva
(Simon 1929)
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female Vulva, dorsal view
(Morano unpubl.)

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6. Araneus pulcherrimus (Roewer, 1942)

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female Habitus
(C L Koch 1844)

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7. Araneus stella (Karsch, 1879)

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male Pedipalp
(Tanikawa 2009)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, lateral view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Tanikawa 2009)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Song et al. 1999)

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8. Araneus svanetiensis Mcheidze, 1997

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male Pedipalp
(Mcheidze 1997)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Mcheidze 1997)
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female Opisthosoma, ventral view
(Mcheidze 1997)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Mcheidze 1997)

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9. Araneus tartaricus (Kroneberg, 1875)

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male Pedipalp
(Bakhvalov 1974)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Song et al. 1999)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Song et al. 1999)

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10. Araneus vulpinus (Hahn, 1834)

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female Epigyne
(Dufour 1835)
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female Habitus
(Dufour 1835)

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11. Araneus washingtoni Levi, 1971

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male Pedipalp, prolateral view
(Levi 1971)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Levi 1971)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Kovblyuk 2011)
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male Embolus with cap
(Levi 1971)
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male Embolus
(Levi 1971)
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male Terminal apophysis, prolateral view
(Levi 1971)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Levi 1971)
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female Epigyne, lateral view
(Levi 1971)
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female Epigyne, posterior view
(Levi 1971)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Levi 1971)
12. Araneus angulatus personatus Simon, 1929 world
13. Araneus v-notatus (Thorell, 1875) world