Araneidae: Araniella

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Male pedipalp with lobe-like appendage on conductor, directed toward patella and very close to patella; median apophysis with elevation in the middle and slantingly truncated distally; distal apophysis massive; epigyne due to broad scapus not or only partly visible, scapus funnel-shaped

  2  

- Male pedipalp without such an appendage on conductor; median apophysis without elevation and tapering distally; distal apophysis narrow; epigyne beneath scapus always at least lateral part visible; scapus not funnel-shaped

  3  

2
(1)

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Median apophysis delicate, medially only with small, somewhat protruding, tooth-like structure; epigyne completely covered by scapus; opisthosoma dorso-laterally always without black dots, ventrally without spots (characteristic for the following species)

Araniella inconspicua (Simon, 1874)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Coxa I
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Median apophysis very robust, medially with strongly protruding, wing-like structure, therefore appearing forked; epigyne only at base completely covered by scapus, so that the lateral epigynal plates are visible; opisthosoma dorso-laterally with (0) 1-2 pairs of black spots, on each side near median axis often with a narrow and bright longitudinal band, ventrally mostly with 4 sharply defined, large and bright spots, quadratically arranged within green median field

Araniella alpica (L. Koch, 1869)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Coxa I
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
3
(1)
Distal apophysis and embolus strongly sclerotised and distinctly distant, only their pointed tips almost touching each other; epigyne with long scapus, strongly narrowed toward tip

  4  

- Only embolus strongly sclerotised, distal apophysis therefore always distinctly brighter; both apophyses close together and running ± parallel; epigyne with short scapus, tongue-shaped, whole scapus of almost the same width

  5  

4
(3)

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Median apophysis short, bent hook like distally; tegulum more basally with pointed tooth on margin; scapus very broad, arc-like tapering, covers epigyne almost entirely, only narrow lateral parts of epigyne visible; opisthosoma often pointed anteriorly, dorsally with 3-4 (5) pairs of mostly strikingly large black lateral spots

Araniella displicata (Hentz, 1847)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1972)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Median apophysis long, uniformly sickle-like bent; tegulum without pointed tooth-like structure; scapus narrower (max. 1/2 width of epigyne), tapering, reaching far beyond epigyne; epigyne on each side of scapus deeply incised and with strongly sclerotised tails; opisthosoma dorsally with 0-4 pairs of black lateral spots

Araniella proxima (Kulczyński, 1885)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
5
(3)

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Tegulum apophysis with blunt tip; median apophysis short, hook-shaped (± rectangular) toward tip; male femur I ventro-median part lacking bristles (normally 3 bristles basally and 1 bristle distally); scapus ± as wide as long, reaching only slightly beyond epigyne, receptacula seminis strongly shining through at posterior epigynal margin

Araniella cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1972)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1972)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Tegular apophysis brad-shaped; median apophysis long and uniformly sickle-shaped bent ; male femur I without area lacking bristles (7, rarely 8 bristles over whole length of femur); scapus longer than wide, reaching distinctly beyond epigyne; entrance ducts not or only weakly visible through epigyne;

Araniella opisthographa (Kulczyński, 1905)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1931)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1931)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
Further taxa

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1. Araniella tbilisiensis (Mcheidze, 1997)

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male Habitus, dorsal view
(Mcheidze 1997)
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female Epigyne
(Mcheidze 1997)
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female Habitus, dorsal view
(Mcheidze 1997)