Theridiidae: Parasteatoda

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Male pedipalp with large spoon-shaped conductor; epigyne is a large transverse oval groove

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- Conductor of male pedipalp only little overtopping cymbium; epigyne different

  4  

2
(1)

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Conductor slightly twisted around its longitudinal axis; border of epigynal groove distinct, anterior margin with small tip pointing toward posterior end; entrance ducts rectangularly bent

Parasteatoda lunata (Clerck, 1757)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Habitus, lateral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Habitus
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Conductor not twisted around its longitudinal axis; border of epigynal groove indistinct at anterior margin

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3
(2)

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Entrance ducts forming a heart-shaped figure which is longer than wide; epigyne and male pedipalp as fig.

Parasteatoda tepidariorum (C. L. Koch, 1841)

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
- Different

  1  

-

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Figure formed by entrance ducts approx. as long as wide; male pedipalp as fig. very similar to tepidariorum mostly a nit smaller and with distinct opisthosomal pattern

Parasteatoda simulans (Thorell, 1875)

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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Pedipalp, conductor, vulva and habitus as fig.

Parasteatoda tabulata (Levi, 1980)

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male Pedipalp, posterodorsal view
(Knoflach 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Knoflach 1991)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Knoflach 1991)
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male Conductor
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne
(Moritz et al. 1988)
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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne/vulva, ventral view
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne/vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1991)
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female Epigyne/vulva, dorsal view
(Knoflach 1991)
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Habitus
(Knoflach 1991)
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(1)

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Conductor of male pedipalp bluntly rounded distally; epigyne posteriorly bordered by a chitinous bulge

Cryptachaea riparia (Blackwall, 1834)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
- Different

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5
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Conductor of male pedipalp as fig.; epigynal groove as wide as long

Ohlertidion ohlerti (Thorell, 1870)

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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1937)
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male Cymbium, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1963b)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Opisthosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1937)
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female Habitus
(Wiehle 1937)
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Conductor transversely truncated distally; epigyne as fig.

Cryptachaea veruculata (Urquhart, 1886)

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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1998)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
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female Epigyne
(Locket et al. 1974)
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female Vulva
(Locket et al. 1974)
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Habitus
(Locket et al. 1974)