Dictynidae: Dictyna

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Cribellum bipartite

Brigittea latens (Fabricius, 1775)

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Loksa 1969)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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female Vulva
(Miller 1947)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1953)
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Chelicerae, frontal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1953)
- Cribellum not bipartite

  2  

2
(1)
Males

  3  

- Females (epigyne is better visible when hairs are removed)

  7  

3
(2)

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Dorsal tibial apophysis thick and knee-shaped

Dictyna major Menge, 1869

female

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Habitus
(Tyshchenko 1971)
- Dorsal tibial apophysis different or missing

  4  

4
(3)
Conductor spirally twisted, the tip is pointing toward tibia

  5  

- Conductor hook-shaped, the tip is not pointing toward tibia

  6  

5
(4)

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Tibial apophysis much longer than wide. Legs with distinct annulations; chevrons on opisthosoma mostly missing

Dictyna pusilla Thorell, 1856

female

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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1969)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Loksa 1969)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Tyshchenko 1971)
-

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Tibial apophysis ± as long as wide; legs with indistinct dark annulations

Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus, 1758)

female

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1969)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Braendegaard 1966)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Loksa 1969)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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male Chelicerae, frontal view
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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Chelicerae, frontal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Azheganova 1968)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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Habitus
(Braendegaard 1966)
6
(4)

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Tibial apophysis much longer than wide; conductor massive

Dictyna uncinata Thorell, 1856

female

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male Pedipalp
(Azheganova 1968)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1969)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Right pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Azheganova 1968)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
-

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Tibial apophysis ± as long as wide; conductor sickle-shaped

Brigittea civica (Lucas, 1850)

female

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male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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male Pedipalp
(Loksa 1969)
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male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1995)
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male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1953)
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male Tibial apophysis
(Loksa 1969)
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Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
7
(2)
Epigyne distinctly bipartite due to longitudinal median bar

  8  

-

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Epigyne without longitudinal median bar. Copulatory opening far anteriorly of epigastric furrow

Dictyna uncinata Thorell, 1856

male

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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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female Vulva
(Miller 1947)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Azheganova 1968)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
8
(7)
Posterior epigynal margin distinctly marked between median bar and lateral pockets

  9  

- Only posterior epigynal margin distinctly marked

  10  

9
(8)

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Posterior epigynal margin undulated

Dictyna major Menge, 1869

male

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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Posterior epigynal margin not undulated, anterior margin distinctly marked

Brigittea civica (Lucas, 1850)

male

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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
10
(8)

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Posterior margin of epigyne distinctly marked; posterior margin of entrance ducts concave; legs with indistinct dark annulations; body length: 2.5-4.0 mm

Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus, 1758)

male

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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Vulva
(Miller 1947)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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female Vulva
(Azheganova 1968)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Tyshchenko 1971)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Azheganova 1968)
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Habitus
(Braendegaard 1966)
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Posterior margin of epigyne only weakly marked; posterior margin of copulatory ducts convex; legs with distinct annulations; chevrons on opisthosoma mostly missing; body length: 1.8-2.5 mm

Dictyna pusilla Thorell, 1856

male

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female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
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female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
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female Epigyne
(Loksa 1969)
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female Epigyne
(Braendegaard 1966)
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female Vulva
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
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female Vulva
(Wiehle 1953)
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female Vulva
(Loksa 1969)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Azheganova 1968)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Loksa 1969)
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Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Braendegaard 1966)
Further taxa

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1. Dictyna alaskae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Danilov 2000)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Danilov 2000)

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2. Dictyna armata Thorell, 1875

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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female Vulva
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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-- Caption missing --
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)

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3. Dictyna hamifera Thorell, 1872

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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Palmgren 1977)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Palmgren 1977)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kulczyński 1908b)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Palmgren 1977)
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female Vulva
(Palmgren 1977)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Kulczyński 1908b)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Palmgren 1977)

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4. Dictyna ignobilis Kulczyński, 1895

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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Kulczyński 1895)

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5. Dictyna kosiorowiczi Simon, 1873

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male Pedipalp
(Simon 1914)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Simon 1914)

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6. Dictyna ottoi Marusik & Koponen, 2017

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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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female Epigyne
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)
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female Vulva
(Marusik & Koponen 2017)

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7. Dictyna palmgreni Marusik & Fritzén, 2011

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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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male Prosoma, lateral view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Vulva
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Receptacula seminis
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Receptacula seminis
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)
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female Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Marusik & Fritzén 2011)

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8. Dictyna sinuata Esyunin & Sozontov, 2016

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male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Esyunin & Sozontov 2016)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Esyunin & Sozontov 2016)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Esyunin & Sozontov 2016)

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9. Dictyna szaboi Chyzer, 1891

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male Pedipalp, lateral view
(Esyunin et al. 2007)
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male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Esyunin et al. 2007)
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male Pedipalp, dorsal view
(Esyunin et al. 2007)
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male Opisthosoma, dorsal view
(Esyunin et al. 2007)
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female Vulva
(Kuzmin & Esyunin 2016)