Pholcidae  C. L. Koch, 1850 / Holocnemus  Simon, 1875   3 species

Holocnemus pluchei  (Scopoli, 1763)

Description
Male

Prosoma whitish, often with dark longitudinal band. Sternum black. Chelicerae with lateral stridulatory ridges. Legs: femur I with a prolateral series of 30 to 36 spines. Femur with dark spots, femur I and tibia I ventrally with numerous, short spines. Opisthosoma whitish, dorsally with vague spots, ventrally with black longitudinal band..

Body length male: 5-7 mm
Female

Palp light brownish, tarsus darker, tibia and tarsus widened. Colouration whitish, prosoma often with dark band, sternum black, with a strong tubercle between coxae IV. Eyes: AME less than one diameter apart. Opisthosoma dorsally with a median red-brown band, ventrally with a wide longitudinal dark band. Opisthosoma oval, without extension behind.

Body length female: 5-7.5 mm
Additional information

Under rocks, in warm terrain, in caves and basements, large webs with irregular meshes.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Ukraine: A. Nadolny (pers. comm.)
Global distribution (WSC 2017): Mediterranean, introduced elsewhere
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2014) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2014, online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Benhadi-Marín J, Barrientos J A , Ferrández M A, Henriques S, Morano E (2013) Second annotated list of selected spider families (Arachnida: Araneae) held at the University of León (Spain). Revta Ibérica Aracnol 22: 71-78

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2017) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 01.08.2017)

Gajić I, Grbić G (2016) Further notes on spiders from the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica (Serbia). Arachnol Mitt 51: 49-56

Huber B A (1995) Copulatory mechanism in Holocnemus pluchei and Pholcus opilionoides, with notes on male cheliceral apophyses and stridulatory organs in Pholcidae (Araneae). Acta Zool Stockholm 76: 291-300

Jäger P (2000) Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae). Arachnol Mitt 19: 49-57

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91

Kovács G, Szinetár C, Eichardt J (2006) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763) (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Hungary. Állattani Közlemények 91: 9-18

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mém Soc Linn Lyon 2: 1-522

Lissner J, Scharff N (2017) Danish Spiders. Online at http://www.danmarks-edderkopper.dk

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Rozwałka R, Rutkowski T, Bielak-Bielecki P (2017) New data on introduced and rare synanthropic spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) in Poland (II). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Lublin-Polonia 71(1)(for 2016): 59-85

van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

van Helsingen P J (2010c) Holocnemus pluchei (Scopoli, 1763 in Nederland (Araneae, Phiolcidae). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 29: 27

World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017

Updates
04-04-2017 Distribution update Old value
24-01-2017 Distribution update Old value
01-10-2015 Distribution update Old value
05-03-2015 Image insert
15-07-2014 Distribution update Old value
24-12-2013 Distribution update Old value