Zoropsidae  Bertkau, 1882 / Zoropsis  Simon, 1878   7 species

Zoropsis spinimana  (Dufour, 1820)

Description

Male palp with hook-shaped median apophysis. Cymbium dorsally with a field of short, dense bristles. Conductor transparent. Embolus short, blunt. Epigyne with long, narrow, finger-shaped scapus. Prosoma yellow-whitish with extended black pattern. Eye field white. Legs yellowish-grey, annulated with black. Opisthosoma yellow-whitish anteriorly, black pattern medially, grey posteriorly.

Body length male: 10-13 mm
Body length female: 10-19 mm
Additional information

In open woodland, under stones and bark, often synanthropic in and on buildings. Females sit in a brood chamber on the cocoon and apparently do not leave it anymore, egg laying in spring, maturity in autumn, lives one year.

This species can bite humans, usually when they try to catch or remove it with their hands (in urban areas, mainly in buildings). The bite is not very painful and an occasional moderate local swelling disappears within a few hours.

Since a few decades, this species shows some spreading tendencies within Europe. Nevertheless, it shall not be listed as alien or invasive because it is native for Europe.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2017): Mediterranean to Russia (USA, introduced)
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
one year old
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2017) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 01.08.2017)

Deltshev C, Vrenosi B, Blagoev G, Lazarov S (2011b) Spiders of Albania – Faunistic and Zoogeographical Review (Arachnida: Araneae). Acta zool bulg 63: 125-144

Griswold C E, Ubick D (2001) Zoropsidae: a spider family newly introduced to the USA (Araneae, Entelegynae, Lycosoidea). J Arachnol 29: 111-113

Hänggi A, Zürcher I (2013) Zoropsis spinimana – eine mediterrane Spinne ist in Basel (NW-Schweiz) heimisch geworden. Mitt Nat.forsch Ges beider Basel 14: 125-134

Harvey P (2012) Zoropsis spinimana (Dufour, 1820) established indoors in Britain. Newsl Br Arachnol Soc 125: 20-21

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91

Murphy F, Murphy J (2000) An Introduction to the spiders of South East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur

Nadolny A A (2016) The first record of Zoropsis spinimana (Aranei, Zoropsidae) in the Crimea. Zoology and Ecology 26: 127-128

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Pesarini C (unpubl.)

Pfliegler W A, Schönhofer A, Niedbała W, Vella P, Sciberras A, Vella A (2017) New records of mites (Acari) and harvestmen (Opiliones) from Malta with a preliminary checklist of Maltese Arachnida. Soil Organisms 89: 85-110 pdf

Thaler K, Knoflach B (1998c) Zoropsis spinimana (Dufour), eine für Österreich neue Adventivart (Araneae, Zoropsidae). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 85: 173-185

van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

van Helsdingen P J (2015b) Binnenwandelende exoten. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 35: 33-34

World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017

Updates
17-01-2017 Image insert
06-12-2016 Datasheet update Old value
06-12-2016 Distribution update Old value
22-12-2015 Distribution update Old value
04-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value