Araneidae  Clerck, 1757 / Nuctenea  Simon, 1864   2 species

Nuctenea umbratica  (Clerck, 1757)

Description

Male palp with median apophysis ending pointed. Epigyne with spoon-shaped scapus. Prosoma reddish dark brown. Opisthosoma extremely flat and uniformly reddish dark brown to almost black. Dark folium margined by narrow, yellowish line. Sides only slightly brighter than folium, mostly reddish brown.

Body length male: 7.5 mm
Body length female: 14-16 mm
Additional information

Very often on trees and buildings in narrow crevices.

This species can bite humans. The bite is not very painful and pain disappears after a few minutes.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2017): Europe to Azerbaijan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2017) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2017 [last updated 11 January 2017], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2017) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: October 2017. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 12.10.2017)

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91

Lissner J (2016c) A small study of the Corsican spider and pseudoscorpion fauna (Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 36: 5-15

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 3.1-3.112

Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Otto S (2017) Caucasian spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus Ecoregion. Database version 08.2017. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

van Helsdingen P J (2013) A quick scan of the spider fauna of the European part of Turkey. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 33: 29-38

Wiehle H (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VI. 27: Familie Araneidae. Tierwelt Deutschlands 23

World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.5. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 5.10.2017. doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
22-09-2017 Image insert
28-12-2016 Datasheet update Old value
28-12-2016 Distribution update Old value
29-08-2016 Image insert
24-12-2013 Distribution update Old value
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value