Theridiidae  Sundevall, 1833 / Theridula  Emerton, 1882   3 species

Theridula gonygaster  (Simon, 1873)

Description
Male

Palp: embolus corkscrew-shaped. Prosoma yellow-white, 0.91 mm long. Opisthosoma: pattern as in female or dark unicolored.

Body length male: 1.3-1.7 mm
Female

Epigyne with 2 distinct large openings in a depression. Prosoma unicolored black or with broad black median band and brighter sides, 0.6-0.74 mm long. Legs yellow-white. Opisthosoma black with large white spots, rhomboidal, wider than long, sometimes posteriorly with a median dorsal tubercle.

Body length female: 3-3.5 mm
Additional information

In cereal fields. This species of Central and South American origin is not native to Europe (alien species). It had been introduced to Europe at least once and did establish.

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2017): Cosmopolitan
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Hänggi A, Stäubli A, Heer X, Trivellone V, Pollini Paltrinieri L, Moretti M (2014) Eleven new spider species (Arachnida: Araneae) for Switzerland discovered in vineyards in Ticino - What are possible reasons? Mitt schweiz Ent Ges 87: 215-228

Kostanjšek R (2010) A contribution to the Slovenian spider fauna – I. Natura Sloveniae 12: 23-33

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91

Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mém Soc Linn Lyon 2: 1-522

Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Saaristo M I (2006) Theridiid or cobweb spiders of the granitic Seychelles islands (Araneae, Theridiidae). Phelsuma 14: 49-89

van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017

Updates
04-07-2017 Distribution update Old value
03-02-2017 Image insert
21-03-2015 Datasheet update Old value
05-01-2015 Distribution update Old value
28-04-2014 Image insert