Amaurobiidae  Thorell, 1870 / Amaurobius  C. L. Koch, 1837   35 species

Amaurobius ferox  (Walckenaer, 1830)

Description

Tibial apophysis with shallow, roundish bulge dorsally. Epigyne with rounded lateral parts, median part ± semicircular. Prosoma red-brown, eye region almost black. Sternum yellowish. Chelicerae red-brown, to almost black. Legs red-brown, vaguely annulated. Opisthosoma black-grey, dorsally with irregular, yellowish spots.

Body length male: 8-10 mm
Body length female: 11-16 mm
Additional information

Almost only in caves, basements and humid mural chinks.

This species can bite humans when accidently squeezing them. The bite is painful as a wasp sting and disappeared completely after 12 hours. There may be a moderate local swelling and redness.

Troglophile species (Mammola et al. 2017)

Frequency: Frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Sardinia (P. Pantini, pers. comm.)
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Europe, Turkey. Introduced to Canada, USA, Mexico
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Ballarin F, Pantini P (2017) A new species of Amaurobius C.L. Koch, 1837 (Araneae: Amaurobiidae) from Apennine Mountains (Italy) with the description of the male of A. pavesii Pesarini, 1991. Zootaxa 4276: 479-502

Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2017) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2017 [last updated 11 January 2017], online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2017) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: October 2017. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 12.10.2017)

Braendegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224

Dresco E (1977) Recherches sur les Amaurobius (Araneae, Amaurobiidae) et description de A. tessinensis sp. nov. du Tessin (Suisse). Rev Suisse Zool 84: 873-882

Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 2.1-2.133

Mammola S, Cardoso P, Ribera C, Pavlek M, Isaia M (in press) A synthesis on cave-dwelling spiders in Europe. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research early view

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Pesarini C (1991) The Amaurobiidae of Northern Italy (Araneae). Atti Soc Ital Sc Nat Mus Civ Stor Nat Milano 131: 261-276

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Tierwelt Deutschlands 42

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 19.0, accessed on 14.01.2018. doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
16-06-2017 Image insert
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value
09-04-2013 Distribution update Old value