Atypidae  Thorell, 1870 / Atypus  Latreille, 1804   3 species

Atypus affinis  Eichwald, 1830

Description

Palp male: with longitudinal depression on femur. Males mostly black. Vulva with 2 pairs of receptacula seminis in the same line. Prosoma female: yellow-brown to black. Sternum with bright median area. First pair of sigilla more than one diameter apart from margin of sternum. Legs female: yellow-brown to black. Metatarsus IV male: dorsally without spines. Tarsus male: always bright. Posterior spinnerets distinctly 3 segmented (in dorsal and ventral view). Opisthosoma female: often completely bright.

Body length male: 7-9 mm
Body length female: 10-15 mm
Additional information

In dry, open pinewoods and heathland, in south-exposed dry meadows and on rocky slopes, up to 500 m. Capture tube over ground 12-17 cm, retreat tube under ground 20-45 cm, diameter up to 13 mm. Colonies of up to 200 specimens at densities of up to 90 individuals/m2. Cocoons with 30-160 eggs at the lower end of tube, mature after 4 years, adult males in late autumn. Females up to 8 years old. In contrast to the females, males can walk around and can be captured e.g. in pitfall traps.

This species can bite humans. Pain has been described as a light burning sensation with some associated local redness, disappearing soon.

Frequency: Widely distributed

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Global distribution (WSC 2018): Britain to Ukraine, North Africa
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S, Naumova M (2017) The spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. Version: October 2017. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 12.10.2017)

Braendegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224

Emerit M (1984) Les glandes tibiales des Telemidae: une structure inédite localisée sur l'appendice locomoteur des araignées. C r hebd Séanc Acad Sci Paris (3) 299: 1-4

Helsdingen P J van (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91 pdf

Kraus O, Baur H (1974) Die Atypidae der West-Paläarktis. Systematik, Verbreitung und Biologie (Arach.: Araneae). Abh Verh Naturwiss Ver Hamburg 17: 85-116

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1969) Pokok I-Araneae I. Fauna Hungariae 97: 2.1-2.133

Miller F (1947) Pavoucí zvírena hadcových stepí u Mohelna. Arch Sv Vyzk ochr prirod kraj zem Morav 7: 1-107

Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Schwendinger P J (1990) A synopsis of the genus Atypus (Araneae, Atypidae). Zool Scripta 19: 353-366

Vrenozi B, Jäger P (2012) A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae) in the Tirana district, Albania. Arachnologische Mitteilungen 44: 81-87

World Spider Catalog (2018) World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, version 19.0, accessed on 14.01.2018. doi: 10.24436/2

Updates
26-11-2013 Datasheet update Old value