Araneidae  Clerck, 1757 / Gibbaranea  Archer, 1951   6 species

Gibbaranea bituberculata  (Walckenaer, 1802)

Description

Male palp with median apophysis. Prosoma dark brown, brighter medially. Sternum dark brown to black. Legs light brown, with dark annulations. Opisthosoma dark brown anteriorly, brighter posteriorly, coloured very variably (whitish, yellow, light brown to almost black), with laterally directed tubercles.

Body length male: 4.8-5.7 mm
Body length female: 6.2-8.9 mm
Additional information

on herbs and bushes in sunny and warm places, mostly near the ground

Frequency: Locally frequent

Distribution
  Presence
  No data
Distribution comment: Great Britain: see comment by Merret et al. (2014); Record from Albania doubtful (Vrenozi, pers. comm.), therefore removed
Global distribution (WSC 2017): Palearctic
Phenology
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 male  female
Figures
References

Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2014) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2014, online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2017) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 01.08.2017)

Bosmans R, Van Keer J, Russell-Smith A, Kronestedt T, Alderweireldt M, Bosselaers J, De Koninck H (2013) Spiders of Crete (Araneae). Nieuwsbr Belg Arachnol Ver 28: 1-147

Kolosváry G (1936) Ein versuch zur Einteilung der Karpathischen Länder mit Berücksichtigung der spinnenfaunistischen Angaben und ein Beitrag zum Rassenkreisproblem bei Spinnen. Folia zool hydrobiol 9: 92-114

Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91

Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 3.1-3.112

Merrett P, Russell-Smith A, Harvey P (2014) A revised check list of British Spiders. Arachnology 16: 134-144

Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

Pantini P, Isaia M (2017) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version May 2017). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

Thaler K (1991b) Pachygnatha terilis n.sp. aus den Südalpen, mit Bemerkungen zu einigen Araneidae der Alpenländer (Arachnida: Aranei, Tetragnathidae, Araneidae). Ber Nat - Med Ver Innsbruck 78: 47-57

van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

Wiehle H (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VI. 27: Familie Araneidae. Tierwelt Deutschlands 23

World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017

Updates
20-05-2014 Distribution update Old value
28-04-2014 Distribution update Old value
15-10-2013 Distribution update Old value