Gnaphosidae: Gnaphosa Latreille, 1804

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1
Colouration dark brown-red to black-brown with yellowish coxae and femora I-IV

  2  

- Coxa and femora I-IV darker

  4  

2
(1)

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Male pedipalp with short and robust spines on femur and tibia; epigynal groove with conspicuous transverse folds

Gnaphosa bicolor (Hahn, 1833)

- Different

  3  

3
(2)

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Tibial apophysis short; Epigyne as fig.

Gnaphosa modestior Kulczyński, 1897

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Tibial apophysis long; Epigyne with bar-like protruding corners on posterior margin

Gnaphosa alpica Simon, 1878

4
(1)
Males

  5  

- Females

  17  

5
(4)
Embolic base (partly) covered by bulbus

  6  

- Embolic base visible

  7  

6
(5)

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Bulbus with stout thorn, directed toward dorsal side

Gnaphosa leporina (L. Koch, 1866)

female

-

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Bulbus with small thorn

Gnaphosa petrobia L. Koch, 1872

female

7
(5)

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Bulbus distally with 2 hook-shaped apophyses

Gnaphosa microps Holm, 1939

female

- Bulbus distally with one apophysis

  8  

8
(7)
Distal apophysis hook-shaped

  9  

- Distal apophysis not hook-shaped

  14  

9
(8)

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Embolus long and whip-shaped with robust, bent apophysis (can be broken off)

Gnaphosa muscorum (L. Koch, 1866)

female

- Embolus different

  10  

10
(9)

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Embolus stout, occupies ± the whole inner side of cymbium

Gnaphosa lucifuga (Walckenaer, 1802)

female

- Embolus occupies < 1/2 of inner side of cymbium

  11  

11
(10)
Embolic base with rectangular process

  12  

- Different

  13  

12
(11)

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Embolus slightly bent, its base almost at the same level as base of hook-shaped apophysis

Gnaphosa tigrina Simon, 1878

female

-

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Embolus ± straight, its base more distant from apophysis

Gnaphosa opaca Herman, 1879

female

13
(11)

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Embolic base with longish process

Gnaphosa rhenana Müller & Schenkel, 1895

female

-

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Embolic base without process

Gnaphosa montana (L. Koch, 1866)

female

14
(8)

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Embolus broad and stout

Gnaphosa badia (L. Koch, 1866)

female

- Embolus slender, with whip-like tip

  15  

15
(14)
Base of distal apophysis angularly bent or with step

  16  

-

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Base of distal apophysis not angularly bent or without step

Gnaphosa lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839)

female

16
(15)

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Base of distal apophysis angularly bent

Gnaphosa nigerrima L. Koch, 1877

female

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Base of distal apophysis with a step

Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866)

female

17
(4)

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Scapus weakly developed

Gnaphosa nigerrima L. Koch, 1877

male

- Scapus distinctly developed

  18  

18
(17)
Epigynal margins with bar-like protrusions

  22  

- Epigynal margins also with pocket-like infoldings

  19  

19
(18)

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Scapus wider than long

Gnaphosa muscorum (L. Koch, 1866)

male

- Scapus longer than wide

  20  

20
(19)

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Scapus almost reaching to epigynal margin

Gnaphosa leporina (L. Koch, 1866)

male

- Scapus shorter

  21  

21
(20)

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Lateral epigynal margins outwardly bent

Gnaphosa badia (L. Koch, 1866)

male

-

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Lateral epigynal margins bent, but not outwardly bent

Gnaphosa petrobia L. Koch, 1872

male

22
(18)

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Scapus very broad, touching bar like protrusions of lateral epigynal margins

Gnaphosa lucifuga (Walckenaer, 1802)

male

- Scapus not touching lateral protrusions

  23  

23
(22)
Ridges of cuticular fold outwardly bent anteriorly

  24  

- Different

  26  

24
(23)
Scapus not reaching beyond the middle part of epigyne

  25  

-

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Scapus longer

Gnaphosa rhenana Müller & Schenkel, 1895

male

25
(24)

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Epigyne more roundish

Gnaphosa opaca Herman, 1879

male

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Epigyne laterally more edged

Gnaphosa lugubris (C. L. Koch, 1839)

male

26
(23)

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Scapus reaching 1/3 of epigynal length

Gnaphosa lapponum (L. Koch, 1866)

male

- Scapus longer

  27  

27
(26)

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Lateral epigynal margins angularly bent

Gnaphosa montana (L. Koch, 1866)

male

- Different

  28  

28
(27)

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Epigynal groove almost circular

Gnaphosa tigrina Simon, 1878

male

-

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Different; Epigyne and vulva as figs.

Gnaphosa microps Holm, 1939

male

Further taxa

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1. Gnaphosa alacris Simon, 1878

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2. Gnaphosa artaensis Wunderlich, 2011

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3. Gnaphosa atramentaria Simon, 1878

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4. Gnaphosa azerbaidzhanica Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003

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5. Gnaphosa betpaki Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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6. Gnaphosa bithynica Kulczyński, 1903

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7. Gnaphosa cantabrica Simon, 1914

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8. Gnaphosa caucasica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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9. Gnaphosa corticola Simon, 1914

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10. Gnaphosa cumensis Ponomarev, 1981

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11. Gnaphosa deserta Ponomarev & Dvadnenko, 2011

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12. Gnaphosa dolosa Herman, 1879

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13. Gnaphosa donensis Ponomarev, 2015

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14. Gnaphosa fallax Herman, 1879

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15. Gnaphosa halophila Esyunin & Efimik, 1997

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16. Gnaphosa iberica Simon, 1878

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17. Gnaphosa inconspecta Simon, 1878

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18. Gnaphosa jucunda Thorell, 1875

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19. Gnaphosa licenti Schenkel, 1953

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20. Gnaphosa lonai Caporiacco, 1949

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21. Gnaphosa mcheidzeae Mikhailov, 1998

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22. Gnaphosa moesta Thorell, 1875

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23. Gnaphosa mongolica Simon, 1895

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24. Gnaphosa muscorum gaunitzi Tullgren, 1955

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25. Gnaphosa occidentalis Simon, 1878

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26. Gnaphosa oceanica Simon, 1878

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27. Gnaphosa orites Chamberlin, 1922

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28. Gnaphosa pseashcho Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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29. Gnaphosa rufula (L. Koch, 1866)

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30. Gnaphosa saurica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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31. Gnaphosa secreta Simon, 1878

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32. Gnaphosa steppica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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33. Gnaphosa sticta Kulczyński, 1908

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34. Gnaphosa stoliczkai O. P.-Cambridge, 1885

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35. Gnaphosa taurica Thorell, 1875

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36. Gnaphosa ukrainica Ovtsharenko, Platnick & Song, 1992

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37. Gnaphosa zeugitana Pavesi, 1880

world38. Gnaphosa balearicola Strand, 1942
world39. Gnaphosa basilicata Simon, 1882
world40. Gnaphosa lapponum inermis Strand, 1899
world41. Gnaphosa limbata Strand, 1900
world42. Gnaphosa lucifuga minor Nosek, 1905
world43. Gnaphosa nordlandica Strand, 1900
world44. Gnaphosa norvegica Strand, 1900
world45. Gnaphosa porrecta Strand, 1900
world46. Gnaphosa prosperi Simon, 1878
world47. Gnaphosa stussineri Simon, 1885
world48. Gnaphosa tetrica Simon, 1878